Great personalities of the world

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 888 slov
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Great personalities of the world
At first I would like to answer question, who is the great personality. It’s somebody, who is good at some branch of human activity. It may be sport, art, science, politic or literature. Each branch has own great personalities. Each period of time has own heroes, which became a symbol for people various ages, various society class and various nationality. So they are world-famous. But some great personalities aren’t famous because it isn’t important for their life to be famous. In my opinion the great personalities are often very modest people.

There are many persons, who have made nothing good and positive, but something bad and they are famous through it, because it has changed the history. One of them was Adolf Hitler. He was the man, who made the history in the first half of the 20th century and he changed lives of millions people. But this is only a mention of the other kind of greatness - but I will talk about the people who did something good.
 
In each branch of human activity, there are usually some competitions, in which are awarded prizes for the best of the best.

- Olympic Games - these games are for sportsmen, who give the medal.
- Oscar - is a golden statuette, which is given as the highest honor in filmmaking. It’s given to actors, directors and also to the film itself.
- Grammy Awards - the Gramophone Awards. It’s one of four major music awards shows in the United States.
- Czech Lion - is given to filmmakers and films, which were the most popular among the people.

But the most popular and in my opinion the top of human skill is Nobel Prize.
 
ALFRED NOBEL
He is the founder of Nobel Prize. Alfred Nobel was born in 1833 in Stockholm and he died in 1896 in his home in San Remo, Italy. He was a Swedish chemist and inventor. He belongs to most important inventors of the 19th century. Nobel invented a lot of inventions, but the most famous is dynamite. He hoped that his invention will be used especially in mining and in building. But everybody knows that dynamite brought new kinds of weapons. He hated war and he hoped that his invention will stop wars. In the end of his life he wrote last will. He decided to establish a fund and its interests will be divided into people, who were the most useful for people.

- he established the Nobel Prize for physics, chemistry, medicine, physiology, literature, peace and later for economy
- 758 individuals and 18 organizations have been awarded the Nobel Prize
- Nobel Prize Winners: Marie Curie ( physic, chemistry )

  the Red Cross ( peace, three times )
  Jaroslav Seifert ( literature )
  Thomas Garrigue Masaryk ( peace )
 
JOSEPH PULITZER
He is the founder of Pulitzer Prize.  He was a Hungarian-American journalist and newspaper publisher in the 19th century. The Pulitzer Prize is a United States award and the highest honour in print journalism. The award also honours literature and musical compositions. Awards are given in categories of journalism, arts and letters. In year 2004 there were 21 categories, for example Beat Reporting, National Reporting, Public Service and so on.

CHARLES IV.
- was born in 1316 in Prague as Wenceslaus and died in 1378 in Prague
- was renamed at the court of his uncle in France from Venceslaus to Charles IV. of
  France
- was the oldest son of John of Luxemburg and Elisabeth I. of Bohemian
- inherited Luxemburg and Bohemian from his father
- was a Holy Roman Emperor since 1355 until his death
- was the most famous Czech king, who ruled in the 14th century
- was elected King of Germany, King of Italy and King of Burgundy too
- was married four times - his wives Blanka from Valois, Anna Faldská, Anna
  Svídnická and Alžběta Pomořanská  
- had two sons and only one daughter
- is still regarded as a Father of the country
- made Prague the imperial capital
- was a great builder in Prague, which bears his name in so many spots:
  Charles University, Charles Bridge, Charles Square…
- in Prague he has a statue in life-size near the Charles Bridge
- several things outside of Prague have also been named after Charles IV.:
  Carlsbad, Karlštejn
- died of pneumonia in 1378
- is buried in Royal Crypt in Saint Vitus Cathedral
 
MARIA THERESA
- was born in 1717 in Vienna and died in 1780 in Vienna
- he is buried in Vienna with her husband in the emperor’s crypt
- was the oldest daughter of Charles VI. and Elizabeth Christine of Brunswick
- was married Roman Emperor Francis I.
- was hereditary proprietress of Habsburg’s country
- became Archdukes of Austria, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary
- made compulsory education in 1774 - it was very important thing
- children have to go to school only for 6 years
- her portrait was pressed on the coins
- he had a lot of portraits in the famous castles all around the Europe
- had eight daughters and the most famous of them is Marie Antoinette
- had five sons and the most famous of them is Josef II.

JOSEF II. - was very famous for his reforms
  - suggested about 6000 reforms
  - cancelled censorship and serfdom
  - made freedom of worship
  - in 1781 made Patent of Tolerance
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