Science and Technology

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča maturanti (25)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 20.08.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 937 slov
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Tlačení: 490
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Science and Technology
- Compare life in the past and at present
Past- Medicine: In the past it was very hard to examine the human body, find out the reason of disease and cure it, because people didn’t have any special apparatuses. They were helpless and suffered from “incurable” diseases, because they didn’t know any medicines for threatment of many diseases.
Transport: In the past it was difficult to get from one place to another, traveling was uncomfortable, too long and really boring and there were only few means of transport to choose. There weren’t any cars, people walked or rode horses..
Work: In the past people had to do all things manually: digging, seeding, planting, watering and harvesting. There were no vacuum cleaner, fridge, wasching machine..
They didn’ t have any electricity also PCs, mobile phones, Tv. Communication for long distances fasted much more longer.  There weren’t such a big choice of goods, productsin shops.
Education: Girls weren’t allowed to attend schools. Schools were only for boys. Women weren’t allowed to vote.
On the other hand the life was much more easier and cleaner. There wasn’t so much pollution and people spent more time in nature.
Today- Medicine: Today scientists are able to create human by cloning, which have one big advantage: now many people who have incurably ill heart or liver, have to wait too long for the right donor of organ, but it isn’t essential, because we manage to clone new healthy organ from one healthy cell of this ill organ.
Transport: Now it isn’t problem to get from one continent to another in a couple of hours and you can choose if you travel by car, bus, motorbike, ship, train or plane. Traveling now in generally is more comfortable and faster. Development in this area is really quick. Cars are safer. But on the other hand these new means of transport produce a lot of exhaust fumes, which pollute air a lot.
Communication: Now there isn’t problem to communicate with people from all over the world. You can talk with your friend whenever you want by using very popular mobile phone. Mobiles phones have a lot of different functions: you can take photographs, write short messages, connect to internet and also listen to music or radio. But some scientists claim that mobile phones can cause cancer. Very popular way of communication – internet. It’s a source of unlimited information, so you don’t have to go to library if you need some information and it can be used in many ways, there can be organized international conferences, and you can chat with people, send email and buy things. But internet can be misused by hackers and people can become addicted to it.
Space research: People provide flights to the Moon. There are also a lot of satellites with different functions. Some of them help people predict the weather and disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, eruption of volcanoes and they provide information about how the Earth is changing. Now there is a “new” machine called computer, which save labour, work for us and make life easier and better.
Industry: New technologies are used in different kinds of industries: for example in food industry, where people use new chemicals in processing and for preservation (instant, dried, frozen food) so that we can store food for longer time. But these preservatives can be dangerous for human body.
Our life is better and easier, we don’t have to do a lot of things, but this lifestyle causes overweight for example: people move less, eat junk and fast food, they don’t walk, but travel by car or use public transport.

- Choose 5 most important inventions in history and explain their meaning for mankind…

Printing Press: Before Gutenberg built his revolutionary printing press in 1439, books were all hand-written. This meant that not only were they very difficult and time-consuming to create and copy, but that they were very expensive. 
Electricity: Electricity was an important discovery as it was used to power machines and for
lightning and making heat.
Wheel: The invention of the wheel helped bring about the Industrial Revolution. Because of
the wheel's invention, steam engines, railroads, and factories were able to be built. Without
the wheel, there would be no automobiles, no airplanes, no space launches, and no turbine
Petrol-driven motocar: This invention made transport even faster and more comfortable and
it shortened the travel time.
Steam engine by James Watt. Hand-made products were soon replaced by machine-made
The electric light bulb is important. because we can have light everytime we want.

- Name some important scientist and discoveries you know from school subject…
There are many other inventions and discoveries which had a great impact on mankind, such as: aircraft, radio, television, telephone, X-ray machines, radar, photographs, birth control methods, penicilin and many other. 
Benjamin Franklin- Electricity
Isaac Newton- Gravity
Alexander Fleming- Penicillin
Alexander Graham Bell - the telephone
Charles Darwin - the theory of evolution

- Say if some inventions can be misused by people…
Science and technology are great phenomen a which can contribute to solving the problems on the earth – to find other alternative sources of energy, to discover medicine against such diseases as cancer, AIDS, ebola and many other. Not all inventions and discoveries have brought only improvement and innovation. Ballistic missiles, laser weapons, nuclear and H-bombs and pollution of the environment are only few examples how good ideas may be abused.
Cloning- many people from different countries don’t agree with it, because it can be misused for genetic experiments
- Science and technology in future…
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