Audionahrávka MP3: Sports and Games

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Autor: sp-prace (12)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 06.05.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Topic number 3: Sports and Games....

There is a difference between sport and games:
Sport includes all kinds of physical activities that help people to keep fit physically and mentally. It is one of the most popular leisure activities.
Games are usually played between 2 people or 2 teams. A game has certain rules, there is a referee who makes sure that the players obey the rules. The referee also decides who has won. The most popular games are football, basketball, baseball, ice-hockey, tennis and golf......
Games are for fun, you do not have to be professional to play a game, you need rules and people who are willing to play together with you. You do not play because you have to be the first, the fastest, the best or the winner. You play game because it is entertainment for you and of course it keeps you fit. You feel better after one hour of any sport activity you can think of.....
Sport is considered to be most of the time for professionals. You are expected to win or at least get some points. You must train every day very hard and forget about your free time or dating or having fun in a pub. Drinking, smoking, staying out late in the night is forbidden......

Sport activities can be divided into:
INDOOR: for example: gymnastics, swimming, basketball, table tennis, badminton, boxing, wrestling and so on.
OUTDOOR: for example: golf, skiing, snowboarding, cycling, mountaineering, hiking, sailing, water-skiing, diving, windsurfing, jogging, fishing, athletics and so on.
Athletics includes these sport activities: marathon, half-marathon, 10K run, relay run, jumping, throwing a hammer or a discus and so on.....

Some sports and games can be played both indoors and outdoors. For example: football, tennis, swimming, skating (speed skating, figure skating, roller-skating) and so on.....

WINTER SPORTS: They can be played only in winter. For example: skiing, snowboarding, ice-hockey, bobsleighing and so on.
SUMMER SPORTS: football, tennis, cycling, golf and so on.
INDIVIDUAL SPORTS: running, cycling, swimming, skating, skiing, snowboarding, shooting, bodybuilding, weight lifting and so on.
COLLECTIVE SPORTS: ice-hockey, rugby, tennis, water polo.
The most popular collective sports are BALL GAMES – for example football, basketball, volleyball, water polo.....

Some words about Football.
Goal involves: post, crossbar, net, goal line.........
Field or football pitch involves: goal, corner flag, centre circle, halfway line, touch line, penalty spot, penalty area......
Players involve: goalkeeper (he plays in net). defender (he plays in defence). midfielder or forward (he plays in midfield). striker or attacker (he plays in attack). wide player (he plays on the left or right wing). referee.
Clothes football players wear is called, football strip......
Action contains: dribble, head, free kick, save, tackle, pass, shoot, throw in, kick, score a goal......

Rules or how to play the football.
The modern game is played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with a net at each end. Players pass the ball to each other by kicking or heading it, with the aim being to score goals, by getting the ball into opponent 's net. The game lasts for two 45-minute halves, and the team scoring the most goals wins. Draws are common, but if a winner has to be found, a game can go into extra time. If the score is still tied after thirty minutes of extra time, a 'penalty shoot out' can decide the winner.........
In general play, the goalkeeper is the only player who can touch the ball with the hands or arms. All the other players can kick or head the ball only. Players can tackle an opponent in order to get the ball from them, but must do so without pushing or tripping the player. Pushing and tripping, along with other illegal actions such as 'handball' and 'offside', are fouls that can be penalized with a free kick. If a foul is committed in the penalty area near either goal, the referee can award a penalty kick, meaning a player can have a free shot at goal, with only the goalkeeper being allowed to try to block it. If a player commits a more serious offence, such as dangerous play, the referee can issue a yellow card as a warning. Or issue a red card, in which case the player is sent off and cannot be replaced by a substitute....
Teams are normally allowed three substitutes, which can be used to replace players because of injury, or for tactical reasons........

Amateurs - amateurs are people who do sport for pleasure, not for money or as a job.
They do sport because:
they want to be fit and healthy,
sport is a form of relaxation,
sport can help us to lose weight,
they can meet many new people.....

Professionals – they do sport because it is their job. By doing sport, they earn their living. Most of them want to become famous and achieve success. It is not easy to become a professional sportsman. You have to start young and be prepared to work hard. You should train a lot and have a healthy lifestyle. Famous sportsmen are popular between people and they have many fans.
If you want to be a successful sportsman, you should have these qualities:
strong will,
the sense for fair-play.....

The first Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece in 776 B.C.. They had then an important political meaning. Women in Old Greece could not take part in the Olympic Games. The first modern Olympics were held also in Athens in 1896. From then on they take part every 4 years, every time in a different country of the world. The Olympic Games promote the idea of liberty and friendship between people all over the world. Only professional sportsmen and sportswomen take part in them. For them it´s great honour to represent their country. People all over the world pay attention to these sports events and that is why the Olympic Games are often under the threat of terrorist attacks. Therefore, the countries which organise the games try to ensure maximum security for everybody involved in the games......
The symbols of the Olympic Games are the Olympic flag with 5 rings and the Olympic fire which is lit at the beginning of the Olympics. Rings represent the unity of five continents. The first part of the Olympic creed “The most important thing in the Olympic games is not to win, but to take part,” is often used for all kids of other competitions..... It is a dream of every sportsman and sportswoman to take part in the Olympic Games......

It is connected with several negative phenomena for example: over training and doping. Men and women are tested during sport competitions and they can be disqualified for taking drugs. Top sportsmen find it difficult to cope with being rich and famous..

Sports and health. Professional sport.
It is connected with several negative phenomena for example: over training and doping.
Sport can sometimes be harmful to your health. While doing sport, people can get seriously injured – for example they can get bruises, they can break a leg or an arm or even hurt their spine. It is important to be very careful when you do sport.
There are very many people who has become addicted to fame or even worse thing - money. They trade their passion in doing sport for being rich. They became big-headed. A lot of top sportsmen find it difficult to cope with being rich and famous.....
Professionals often take drugs in order to get better results so they can win a price and gain bonus for winner. But fortunately we have antidoping agency which keeps tracking sportsmen and prevents world of games from cheating. Men and women are tested during sport competitions and they can be disqualified for taking drugs...

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a professional sportsman?
Would you like to be a professional sportsman? Why? Why not? Explain.
Which of the games do you like playing or watching? How often do you play or watch them? Who do you play or watch with?
Would you go to a stadium to watch an important match? Why? Why not? Explain.
Do you have a favourite sportsman or a sportswoman? Describe him or her.
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