Audionahrávka MP3: Traveling

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Autor: sp-prace (12)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 06.05.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Topic number 7: Traveling....

Travelling means make a journey, typically of some length or abroad, go or be moved from place to place.
Journey is an act of travelling from one place to another.
Trip means go on a short journey.
Voyage is a long journey involving travel by sea or in space - (for example take a cruise down the river).
Tour is a journey for pleasure in which several places are visited....
Examples: Business trip/ Work stay... Study stay, Exchange stay, expedition, Scholarship, Commute. Backpacker´s holiday.. Cruise tour and sailing tour.....
Work stay is when you stay there for a long time. Scholarship are money for study stay. Commute is travelling to school every day. Backpacker´s holiday is when you get trip by yourself. Package tour/trip is when you use travel agent....
Globe trotter is a passionate traveler....

Travelling in Slovakia.
In communism we needed special permissions to visit any country....

Travelling and seasons of the year:
In winter we use ski resorts. You cannot ski under influence in most countries....

People travel for many reasons. For example:
It is a good way to learn about life – to learn new things, to understand other cultures, their traditions, customs and to get to know them.
For a holiday - to relax and to get some rest.
To learn a foreign language or to become better at it.
From necessity – people need to travel to work, to do shopping, to visit friends and so on....

Advantages and disadvantages of travelling by:
1.) CAR.
Advantages are.
Traveling by car is comfortable.
You can listen to the radio while you drive.
You can go anywhere anytime – you don’t have to use the public transport, you don’t have to buy a ticket.
You can stop at any time you need to have a break.
The car has a trunk - it has a big space to carry your luggage and other things....

Disadvantages are.
A car is expensive to buy.
Petrol is expensive.
You must have a driving licence.
You must pay for parking.
You can end up in a traffic jam.
Statistically it is the most dangerous way of transport – you can have a car crash.
It pollutes the air which is not good for our environment.....

Vocabulary of car.
Accident rate.. exhaust fumes... bumper to bumper trafiic means there are traffic jams... Car pool is when a few people are in one car, and they together pay for fuel.
Hitch hike is when somebody is close to a road and waiting for the stranger to give him a ride....

2.) BUS.
Type of the bus.
Coach, it is long distance bus.

Advantages are.
We can spend time talking to other passengers on the bus.
We can relax – read and look out of the window, work, eat...
Buses stop more often than trains – you can get off at a bus stop which is closer to the place where you need to go.
You don’t have to drive.....

Disadvantages are.
It´s expensive (but usually cheaper than traveling by car).
It´s often crowded.
It´s sometimes delayed.
You have to get to the bus stop.
You must travel at certain times.
Sometimes stopping at too many bus stops can be a disadvantage.....

3.) TRAIN.
Types of train.
Cargo train/ passanger train/ express train... TGV in France... or EUROSTAR from UK to France, which goes through British channel via Europe tunnel...
Local train and internationals trains. International trains offer high quality.....

Advantages of train are.
We can spend time talking to other passengers on the train.
We can relax – read and look out of the window, work, eat....
It usually isn’t stressful.
Trains are comfortable if they are not crowded.
You don’t have to drive.....

Disadvantages are.
It´s expensive (but usually cheaper than traveling by car).
It´s often crowded.
It´s sometimes delayed.
You have to get to the station.
Sometimes you have to use other transport to get to the station.
You must travel at certain times......

4.) PLANE.
Advantages are.
Traveling by plane is comfortable.
It is safe.
It´s fast - you can get to any place in the world and it takes only a few hours.
You can read and sleep during the flight.....

Disadvantages are.
It is expensive.
It´s strictly dependent on timetable – you have to travel at certain times.
Sometimes the flight can be delayed or cancelled.
You have to buy the plane ticket in advance.
Some people are afraid of heights and confined spaces.....

Special type of ship:
Hydrofil. It is fast ship...

Advantages are.
It´s relatively safe.
It´s mostly used for trips during holidays....

Disadvantages are.
You can get seasick.
A ship can sink.
It isn’t used often nowadays. It was more often used in the past. One of the biggest and the most famous ships was the Titanic. It was considered unsinkable but it sank on its maiden voyage from England to New York and more than one thousand and 500 people died.....

Means of transport – we can travel:
1.) By land.
By car, by train, by bus, by bicycle, by motorcycle, by underground, by foot....

2.) By water.
A boat, a ferry, a ship, a cargo.....

3.) By air.
A plane/a jet plane, a helicopter....

Public transport. Public transport is cheaper but also less comfortable. It´s often crowded and it´s dependent on timetable. It includes: bus, train, tram and underground/subway. Subway is the fastest way of transport in the city. It usually goes every 5 minutes. Undergrounds were built in order to make the trams and buses less crowded.....

Traveling on holiday.
When we want to travel on holiday, we should at first find accommodation. We can make a reservation in a travel agency, make a reservation on the internet or call directly the hotel or motel and book the accommodation before we arrive....
Hotels and motels are different in price and comfort. Motels are usually situated by the roads, and the services in a motel are usually at a little bit lower level than in a hotel....
In hotels and motels we can get different services:
1.) Bed and breakfast.
2.) Full board...
If we need anything, we can call the reception desk and the receptionist will arrange what we need. We can also use the hotel’s services: for example: restaurant, bar, coffee shop, swimming pool, fitness centre, hairdressers or a beauty saloon and so on.....
When young people travel on holiday, they can find accommodation in youth hostels. It´s a special kind of accommodation for young people mostly in Great Britain. It´s cheaper but you can stay only for a limited number of nights.....
When we travel abroad for a holiday, we should take with us: passport, visa - if we need it, money or a credit card, luggage - Either a suitcase or a rucksack. and insurance.....

Description of a railway station.
The railway station is a big hall with a ticket office where we can buy a single ticket or a return ticket and a seat reservation.... There is:
The arrival and departure board, a luggage office, a waiting hall, lockers, telephones, a drink machine, toilets....
From the waiting hall we go through the under-passage onto the platform......

Travelling in the past......
The land mark inventions that followed are:
Around 3500 BC - Two-wheel chariot. World’s first form of wheeled transportation - invented in Sumeria. This eventually led to invention of four-wheel chariot.
In 1670 - Cart driven by a steam turbine, build by a Jesuit missionary in China.
In 1790 - Modern bicycles invented.
In 1814 - George Stephenson invented the first practical steam powered railroad locomotive.
In 1885 Karl Benz builds the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal combustion engine.
In 1908 Henry Ford improves the assembly line for automobile manufacturing.....

The landmark inventions in water transportation are.
In1620 Cornelis Drebbel invented the first submarine.
In 1787 Steamboat invented.
In 1912 First diesel-powered ship.
In 1958 First nuclear powered ship launched....

Air Transport.
Man’s next stride in transportation looked not to the land, or even to the seas, but to the sky. Although many people had toyed with the idea of flight, but the first sustained, controlled flight took place only in December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The inventors of this new flying machine were brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, two bicycle makers. They invented a bicycle propelled contraption which later evolved into jet-propelled aircraft capable of world-wide mass transfer. It came to be called the aeroplane. Aeroplane made it easier for people to travel great distances in less time.....

The land mark inventions in air transportation are.
In 1492 Leonardo da Vinci was first to seriously theorize about flying machines.
In 1783 The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air balloons.
In 1903 The Wright Brothers invent and fly the first engine airplane.
In 1907 Very first helicopter – though an unsuccessful design....

Space Transport.
Man wasn’t yet satisfied and set his gaze towards the night sky, and the stars. United States, in 1955, announced the formation of the Vanguard Satellite Program and began exploring what it would take to break away from the Earth’s gravitational pull and thus followed a series of experiments in aerospace engineering.....

The landmark events in space transportation are.
In 1957 USSR’s Sputnik first. first earth-orbiting satellite.
In 1961 USSR’s Vostok first. first manned space-flight.
In 1969 Man Lands on moon. American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the moon.
Every development that followed, made history. Recently, USA’s NASA has also launched its unmanned expeditions to other planets like Mars and Pluto. With the pace of developments in aerospace engineering, that day is not far when we will see man travel as far as Pluto or maybe further.....

Travelling today.
Affordable air travel soon contributed to international mass tourism, pretty much as we know it today. Over the years different developments in tourism have changed the way we travel, such as technology, safety and security, costs, social changes, and so on. Today the hoards of backpackers and gap-year students travel through one continent to another. So when we wonder why we travel, and where it all started, it might be comforting to think about our predecessors, and how they moved first out of necessity, then for religion, migration, emigration, commerce, enlightenment and finally for pleasure. Today each of our personal reasons may vary, but one thing is certain: there will never be rest for a species that can only move, move and keep moving.
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