Audionahrávka MP3: Science and Technology

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 06.05.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Topic number 12: Science and Technology....

Difference between science and technology.
Science and technology go hand in hand. They are unseparable parts, one influence another.....
A science is a process of gaining knowledge. Science tries to ask questions that can be tested. So you can´t ask the question. “why does the universe exist?“ the right question can be: “When did the universe come into existence?“ Because you could design experiments to test the answer. This reveals another characteristic of science. It usually involves doing on experiment. In science your experient has to be repeatable. .....One of the most popular conceptions of what makes science differrent is that it follows the sciencitific method. This method involves asking a question, performing an experiment, gathering observations and coming to conclusions......

Technology is the making usage and knowlege of tools, machines, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures......

Science and technology is as old as the mankind. Science has started to develop as people have sought to somehow improve their lives. The first inventions and discoveries were very simple.....
As the first important discovery in the development of the mankind, we consider in discovery of fire. On the other hand another vitally important invention was the invention of Wheel - (about 3 thousand and 500 Before Christ).....
About the year 3000 Before Christ people started to live in towns, where science began to grow. Many important investions like writing, reading, counting, astronomy, medicine and chemistry began to develop..... Man´s effort to survive and to improve his way of life made him invent new and better tools, get deeper knowledge and control of the forces of nature. As man´s knowledge grew people found it useful to classify it. It was separated into various branches, such as Physics: the study of natural forces... Biology: the study of living beings and Chemistry: the study of materials......

Comparison between life in the past and in the present.
Science has been very fast growing and our understanding has much drown in comparison with the world hundred years ago. In that time patients battle illness, while doctors can´t do more than counsel and comfort them and keep them clean.... Now doctors treat and often cure patients with variety of medicines and medical Technologies. Public sanitation has eliminated many of the lethal diseases such as plague dysenters and tuberculosis...
Many cures have been found for infectious diseases, flu, diabetes, and so on... Penicilin (an antibiotic that kills bacteria) was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928... Insulin by Sanger in 1958.... Quite a few people live longer owing to transplanted organs, such as heart, kidneys, lungs or liver....
In nowadays television signal can be instantaneously transmitted by satellites to households. The news will spread as well by radio, newspaper, and the World Wide Web.......

Inventions of the past.
In the pre-historic times, people’s lives were very simple: people hunted for food and made primitive tools from stones, and simple clothes to protect them from the cold. The only tool which they had was the human hand.....
People wanted to make their lives easier and more comfortable and so they invented the wheel. They also built windmills to use the wind energy. Important discoveries and inventions came in 15th and 16th centuries: new continents. America, Asia, Africa were discovered, and sciences such as astronomy, philosophy, medicine and biology were developed......At that time also the printing press was invented in Germany by a man called Gutenberg......
Many important inventions came in the 18th and 19th century. It was the time of the Industrial Revolution:
The steam engine by James Watt. The electric light bulb by Edison. The electric motor by Michael Faraday. The 1st petrol driven car by Daimler and K. Benz. and the electricity........

Other famous inventors and scientists:
Isaac Newton. English mathematician, physicist, astronomer. He invented the law of gravitation.....
Charles Darwin. An English scientist. He developed the modern theory of evolution.....
Alexander Graham Bell. Scottish inventor. He invented the telephone....
Albert Einstein. He developed the theory of relativity.....
Sir Alexander Fleming. Scottish bacteriologist. He discovered the first antibiotic drug - penicillin......
James Dewey Watson. American biologist. Discovery of a structure for DNA.....

Thanks to these inventions, large factories were built and everything started to be produced by machines. The mass production started and many goods became cheaper, and so more people could buy them. Also the technologies improved and new and cheaper materials were used: Rubber, glass, leather, paper, plastics and synthetic materials.....

Later, in the 20th century, these inventions came to existence: The airplane, the computer, the mobile phone, the Internet, the TV, the videophone, the credit cards, pesticides, fertilizers or genetically modified food......

In the 20th century, scientists made a lot of medical research that helps the doctors to save human lives and to cure many illnesses. for example: The laser, new drugs and vaccines, penicillin, vitamin C, X-ray, and so on....

Inventions and technology that we use every day.
Today we cannot imagine our lives without technology. We use it every day at home, at work, at school and in many other parts of our lives. They are very important for us. There are many inventions that we use every day.....
For example at home we use these inventions:
Electric appliances. Fridge, a washing machine, PC, TV, an electric kettle, a mobile phone, an answering machine, a dishwasher, a plug, a socket, a microwave oven, a hoover. and so on....

At work we can use.
A telephone, a fax machine, a computer, a notebook, a car, and so on....

Science and Technology in hands of a man.
Advantages:
It made our lives easier and more comfortable. Sometimes science can help to make a human life longer. for example: new medicine - penicillin, and medical technology was developed - X-ray, so many people can be cured.
Science and technology help us to learn new information about our life, the life of animals, our world and the space. People can travel to space, search the oceans and the jungle because we have the technology for it. We can measure, weigh very precisely. Science and technology helps us to overcome the distance. For example: the telephone, we can talk to and see people who are far away from us, even on the other side of the world. It helps us to make transactions easier. We use credit cards, phone cards…
It can help us to protect our environment, to find some alternative sources of energy. For example: the wind power, the solar power…..

Disadvantages:
The science has brought some ethical problems. For example the cloning of animals and people. Some people think that it is right, some people think it is wrong....
Science and technology can endanger people. We can be destroyed by the new inventions: ballistic missiles, laser and nuclear weapons, Hydrogen bomb....
Pollution of the environment, on the one hand the science can help us to protect it, on the other hand, we can destroy it by fertilizers, pesticides…..
We spend less time talking to our family and friends. We prefer sending messages, using mobiles and we communicate with computer, not with real people......

We should use the technology wisely, so that we can improve our lives and don’t destroy it.....

Misuse of science and technology.
Everything has its pros and cons. This phrase belongs also to science and technology. It´s very satisfying how science has influenced our lives from positive side of view, but it has influenced our lives also from a negative side –science can be misused.....
The best example how the science can be abused is weapon. At first, meant as a defend tool used only in a case of danger. But we all know that it isn´t like that. Weapon that infuenced a world most was nuclear reactions and has enormous destructive power. A single nuclear weapon is capable of destroying a city. Nuclear weapons have been used twice for war, by the US against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (bomb called Little Boy) and Nagasaki (bomb called Fat Man) during World War II. With a dreadfull results. Little Boy had force of 12000 tons of TNT, it levelled all buildings and 100000 people died. Very dangerous are also chemical and biological weapons......

Man and science and technology in the future.
In house you have washing machine, which will wash your dish for you. As a science develops, people become lazier; simply they are living easier life but only from a physical side of man.....From a mental side people get more and more stressed, they are still in rush. People don´t do any sports because they simply don´t have any time... Besides a healthy nutrition, people eat hamburgers, drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. This all doesn´t influence our health positively. And that´s why the civilization diseases came to existence....
Right example can be the heart attack or diseases which are related to metabolism, blood stream. Many people die for these diseases. The steep development of industry in the last 50 years is a great danger for life on the Earth.. There are two pressing problems with the atmosphere on our planet, which are caused by emitting polluting materials into the air. The most pressing problem is caused by the impairment of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth. Ozone is decomposed by Freon above all..... The second great problem is the green house effect which is caused by a lot of Carbon Dioxide in the air. The increase of temperature can cause melting of polar icebergs maybe in a period of 50 years.....
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