Audionahrávka MP3: The Countries Whose Language I am Learning

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Dátum: 06.05.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Topic number 24: The Countries Whose Language I am Learning....

1.) United States of America.
Official motto is: In God we trust. Traditional motto is: Out of many, one.....
The USA is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It’s area is 9.37 milion square kilometers.
It has the population of about 250 million people. The USA is a very multicultural country – there live many different races and religions. For example: African-American, Asian, American-Indian, Eskimo, Hispanic people and so on.....
The currency is American dollar..
5 cent is called Nickel.
10 cent is called Dime.
50 cent is called half-dollar.....

National flag contains 13 stripes (7 of white and 6 of red colour).
In the upper right corner there are 50 white stars represents 50 states. They are on blue background....

GEOGRAPHY.
The USA border: On NORTH Canada. On SOUTH Mexico. On EAST the Atlantic ocean. On WEST the Pacific ocean...
A part of the USA is also Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands......

The highest peak of the USA is in Alaska - Mt. McKinley (6194 metres).....

RIVERS and LAKES.
The USA has many rivers:
the Mississippi – the longest river in USA (the 3rd longest river in the world)...
the Missouri...
the Hudson – connected with the Great Lakes...
the Colorado.
the Yukon – the biggest river in Alaska.....

There are some very important lakes on the US-Canada border. They are the biggest reservoirs of fresh water in the world. They are called the Great Lakes:
For example: Lake Michigan or Lake Ontario.....

Climate.
Because the USA is a big country, there are big variations of climate. The temperatures change from the arctic cold in northern Alaska to subtropical warmth in Hawaii and in some other states. For example: California, Florida… Florida has subtropical climate which often brings hurricanes......

Industry and agriculture.
The US economy is the biggest in the world. The country is rich in raw materials. For example: natural petrol, kaolin, salt, natural gas..
Philadelphia is the centre of machinery and chemical industry. Detroit is the centre of US car industry – there are companies such as Pontiac or Chrysler....
The USA is the leading country in agriculture. The American agricultural system is very effective. There are about 2 million farms in the USA and only about 2.4 % of the population work on them. A lot of agricultural production is exported. The most important production is the production of soya, maize/corn and wheat.....

The history of the USA.
The American continent was discovered by Vikings around the year 1000. People in Europe didn’t know about the existence of the American continent until 1492, when Columbus made his historical voyage from Spain.....

GOVERNMENT. USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, the largest state is Alaska, the smallest one is Rhode Island. Each state has its own government, laws, education and taxes. The US political system is based on 2 strongest opposed parties – the Republicans (more conservative) and the Democrats (the party of reform). Both sides have its own symbol. The Republicans have the Elephant, and the Democratics have the Donkey. .. The power of the Government is divided into 3 branches – the executive, legislative and judicial branch. First president was George Washington. Presidential election is held every four years.....

Places of interest in the USA.
Washington, D.C.
The capital city of the USA. D.C. means “District of Columbia”. Washington is the seat of the White House – the seat of the President.. Some interesting places in Washington:
The Jefferson Memorial. The White House. The Arlington National Cemetery. The Museum of Natural History....

New York.
The largest city in the USA. The nicknames of New York are:
Melting Pot – because it is a very multicultural city and people of many different races, religions and origins live there...
Big Apple - because when first people came, there were Apple Orchards.....

In New York we can visit:
1. Manhattan. The real centre of New York. It´s famous for its Manhattan skyline - a large number of skyscrapers on a small area.. One of the highest skyscrapers is called the Empire State Building.....
2. Brooklyn – has a famous beach – Coney Beach.....
3. The Bronx – there are many parks and the Bronx ZOO – one of the largest in the USA....
4. The Statue of Liberty. It was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy........
5. Wall Street....
6. Madison square garden... ... ...

Las Vegas.
Las Vegas lies in Nevada. It´s built on sand. More than 12 million people visit Las Vegas every year. There are many nightclubs and casinos where people can gamble and get rich or loose a lot of money. In Las Vegas people can also see many famous singers, comedians dancers or musicians.......

Los Angeles, California. It´s a beautiful country with warm weather. There is the Disneyland.....

Dallas is the financial and commercial centre. John F. Kennedy was assassinated there in 1963.......

Other cities: San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Miami, Seattle, Chicago and so on.....

The National parks.
The USA has many national parks with beautiful nature. For example in the Rocky Mountains Region....
The famous parks are in Utah, Texas, Arizona, Nevada and so on... The famous national parks are for example: The Grand Canyon National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Death Valley National Park, Yosemite Valley National Park and so on... In Yellowstone are beautiful mountains and waterfalls......

People and their customs and traditions.
In the USA people celebrate these national holidays:
New Year’s Day.. 4th of July is The Independence Day.. 4th Thursday in November is Thanksgiving Day. Christmas day..... ....

Sports.
Americans play hockey, tennis, basketball and rugby. American football is very different from the football we play in Europe......
People sometimes say that the USA is the place, where all your dreams can come true. If you want to work, you can easily find a job and earn money. Therefore many young people want to work and live in the USA. If you want to travel, there are many interesting places that you can see. People are friendly and talk-active. It is also a very multicultural country, so you can meet people of different origin......... .... .... ....

2.) Canada.
Motto is: From Sea to Sea....
National symbol is maple leaf.....
National flag containts three stripes - two red and one is white. In the middle there is white stripe and red maple....
Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world. It’s area is around 10 milion square kilometers...
It has the population of about 32 million people. The majority is of European origin, the North American Indians, Eskimos... Canada is less crowded than the USA...
The name Canada is of Indian origin and means village or settlement..
The currency is 1 Canadian dollar which is divided into 100 cents....
The official languages are English and French. The capital city is Ottawa. The largest city is Toronto.
Canada is an independent federation within the Commonwealth. Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories....

GEOGRAPHY.
Canada borders: On NORTH the Arctic ocean. On SOUTH the USA. On EAST the Atlantic ocean. On WEST the Pacific ocean and Alaska.....

MOUNTAINS and LOWLANDS.
Western part of Canada, which is called the Cordillera, is very mountainous and rocky. There are the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains and other ranges. The highest peak of Canada is Mount Logan (5959 metres). It´s in Yukon. In the east there are the Appalachian mountains but there are also many lowlands. In Canada, there are also large prairies suitable for agriculture......

RIVERS and LAKES.
The most important RIVERS are:
The Winnipeg River...
The St. Lawrence River...
The Columbia River...
The Mackenzie River – the longest river in Canada......

The biggest LAKES:
Great Bear Lake...
Great Slave Lake..
Lake Winnipeg......
There are also other great lakes which Canada shares with the USA – Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior......
NIAGARA FALLS are the most famous water falls in the world. They lie on the Niagara river, which connects lake Erie and lake Ontario. They are made of American falls (which belong to the USA) and the Horseshoe Falls (which belong to Canada).......

Climate.
The most inhabited parts of Canada have continental climate – summers are hot and winters are cold. In the north, the climate is arctic.....

Industry and agriculture.
Canada is rich in raw materials. For example: uranium, gold, zinc, silver, nickel and so on... Mining industry is developed...
Canada has many forests. 1/3 of the country is covered with forest, and wood industry is very important for them. Canada is a great exporter of wood and wood products.....
Canada also belongs to the countries leading in agriculture – wheat, maple syrup is a typical Canadian product.....

Political system.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth. The head of the state is the Queen Elizabeth the second. and the head of the government is the Canadian Prime Minister....
Canada has 2 official languages and 2 systems of law:
1. Civil law.
2. Common law....
Parliament is responsible for national defence, international trade, immigration, criminal law and so on....
The regional or provincial legislatures are responsible for education, civil rights, the hospital system, health care and social security within their boundaries.....

The Canadian system of education.
Public education is free until the children finish the secondary education. Further (post-secondary) education is usually paid – the students pay a tuition.... The school attendance is compulsory from the age of 6 or 7 until they are 15 or 16 years old.....
In general, high school programs are divided into 2 parts:
1. Preparation for university
2. Post-secondary education – at a college or an institute of technology, preparation for a workplace.....

Places of interest in Canada.
1.) Ottawa – the capital city.
The capital city is a business and technological centre of Canada. Many big technological companies have their residence there. For example Alcatel. You can visit about 30 museums, 50 galleries, many night clubs and theatres. For example The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa Little Theatre, Canadian Museum of Civilization, or Ottawa International Jazz festival......

2.) Toronto.
Toronto is the biggest city in Canada. It is a city of ethnic minorities. We can find there the Canadian National Tower (CN Tower). It´s visited by about 2 million people every year, because it is an excellent place for observation and it offers a beautiful view. There is a revolving restaurant in it.....
The Toronto ZOO. The ZOO is divided into geographical regions and you can see there more than 5000 animals in their natural environment......

3.) Quebec – Montreal.
Montreal is the second biggest city in Canada, the biggest city in the province Quebec. It´s a French speaking city. La Ronde is the biggest amusement park in Montreal. The Montreal Fireworks Festival is held there every summer... Tourists often visit also the Old Montrea, which is the historical part of the city – there is the Old port...... ..

Canadian National Parks.
Canada is famous for its beautiful nature, especially the forests. Parks are located across entire Canada and there are many protected plans and species of animals. There are many parks that are a big attraction for tourists. For example Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park, Fundy National Park, Terra Nova National Park, St. Lawrence Islands National Park, Greenwich, Prince Albert National Park.....

People and their customs and traditions.
In the Canada people celebrate these national holidays:
Christmas. Easter. Thanksgiving Day - 2nd Monday in October... Remembrance Day - dedicated to the soldiers killed in the World War one and World War two......

Canadian people are very good at playing hockey – they have won many national competitions and cups. Other sports played in Canada are for example basketball, golf and so on. In Canada they have national sport called Lacrosse.....
Canadian people are friendly and Canada is a good country for newcomers. It is a multicultural country – it´s home to a large number of aboriginal people, called First Nations. Over the past century and a half, Canada has welcomed 15 million immigrants. Every year about 200,000 new immigrants arrive here. Canada has a national policy for multiculturalism and people's customs and traditions here are preserved and respected........ .... .... ...

3.) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The UK is a country, which is situated on two main islands:
Great Britain, and Ireland...
The highest peak is Ben Nevis...
British national flag is Union Jack.....

Great Britain consists of these countries:
England – the capital city is London.
Scotland – the capital city is Edinburgh.
Wales – the capital city is Cardiff.
Northern Ireland – the capital city is Belfast......

UK area is 244 thousands square kilometers and the population is about 60 milion inhabitants.... The capital city is London and the currency is 1 British pound... The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and the head of the state is the Queen Elizabeth the second. The head of the government is the Prime minister – it is David Cameron now...
The country has a mild and rainy climate. The most important river is the Thames, and the longest river is the Severn......

INDUSTRY and AGRICULTURE.
The UK is a very industrialized country. Services - for example finance, banking, computing, advertising and so on, are now a very important part of the British industry.. Other important industries are also iron and steel industry, textil, plastics and food industry....
The main agricultural products are potatoes, sugar beet, milk, meat, wheat and so on.....

Interesting places in Britain.
1.) England.
Stonehenge. It is a historical place made of big stones in the south of England. Scientists are still trying to discover, why it was built. Some of them think that it was a religious place for funerals, others think that it was used as a calendar. Scientists still don’t know how it was built...
Liverpool – is the home of the famous band called the Beatles...
Oxford, Cambridge – these are the famous university towns...
Stratford upon Avon – it is the birthplace of William Shakespeare. He was a famous English writer and dramatist. He wrote Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet and so on...
London – the capital city of England... ... ..

2.) Scotland.
Lake Loch Ness. Lakes are in Scotland called Loch. One of the biggest lakes is the lake Loch Ness. People believe that a monster called Nessie lives in this lake. Many people say they have seen this monster. Scientists are trying to find out if it really exists. They think it could be an animal that lived in pre-historic times and it survived in the lake, because it had good conditions for life there......
Glasgow – it is the biggest city in Scotland. It´s an important economic and tourist centre of Scotland...... ... ...

3) LONDON.
London is the capital city of England and one of the world’s largest cities. It is situated in the south of England and it has the population of about 7.5 million people... London is a very multicultural city – people of different origins, races and religions live there... London is crossed by the river Thames...
London is today one of the world's leading business, financial and cultural centres. There are 5 airports and a large port in London – the most important airport is called Heathrow......

These are the London’s most important sightseeing places:
1. The Houses of Parliament (also called The Westminster Palace). They stand on the shore of the river Thames. They are buildings in Gothic style. The Houses of parliament consist of 2 houses: The House of Lords and The House of Commons.....
2. Big Ben. It is the clock tower which belongs to the Houses of Parliament. The clock has the name of Sir Benjamin Hall. He was very tall and so his friends called him Big Ben. The clock has 7 meters in diameter and it weighs 13 tons. It is the biggest bell in England.....
4. The London Eye is the world’s largest observation wheel and the London’s most popular tourist attraction....
5. The Tower Bridge is a bridge which is near the Tower of London. It´s low over the river and it must be opened for the big ships. Signals for ships and cars are sent by traffic lights.....
6. The Tower of London. It is near the Tower Bridge. It was a prison, a fortress, a palace in the past. Visitors can see the crown jewels there.....
7. Buckingham Palace. It is the residence of the Queen. She lives here with her family. The first queen who lived in Buckingham Palace was the Queen Victoria... In summer tourists can visit the Buckingham Palace because it´s opened to public and they can also see the changing of the guards.....
8. St. Paul’s Cathedral....
9. Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum. There are figurines of famous people made of wax......

STREETS AND SQUARES.
1. Trafalgar Square. It is famous for its pigeons. Every year, people from London celebrate the New Year there. The square is on the place where French were defeated by English under Admiral Lord Nelson. There is Nelson’s memorial.....
2. Piccadilly Circus. It´s the biggest and oldest square in London. It is the heart of London’s entertainment world. There are many shops, restaurants, small theatres and night clubs. In the middle of Piccadilly there is a statue of EROS – the god of Love.....
3. Oxford Street is the biggest shopping street in London. There are many shopping centres and also many small shops......

PARKS IN LONDON.
1. Hyde Park. The biggest park in London. In the Hyde Park there is a place called the Speaker’s corner where people can say their opinions on public, religious and political issues......
2. St. James’ Park. It is oldest of the Royal Parks in the city of Westminster. It is east of the Buckingham Palace.
3. Kensington Gardens. It´s now a park, but in the past it was a private garden, which belonged to the Kensington Palace. We can see there the Albert Memorial, Peter Pan Statue and other buildings and monuments.....
4. Green wich Park.....

Famous people in Britain.
The Royal Family. It consists of the Queen Elizabeth the second., her husband and their children Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Prince Charles was married to Princess Diana who died in a car crash in 1997. They had 2 sons – William and Harry. At present Prince Charles is married to Camilla Parker Bowles. The Royal family lives in the Buckingham palace which is the residence of the Queen......
The Prime Minister. The Prime Minister live´s and has his office in London. Prime minister is David Cameron now......
Pop singers. The Beatles, Robbie Williams and so on.... The Beatles come from Liverpool and their songs are very popular and still played on the radios. They consisted of 4 members: John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Star. They were very popular in the 60’s. John Lennon was killed by a fan......

Customs and traditions.
British people are considered conservative. People celebrate these holidays:
1. Easter holiday. In England children often boil chicken’s eggs and paint them with bright colours. Then they all get together on top of a hill and have an egg race. They roll the eggs down the hill....
2. Mother’s Day. 2nd Sunday in May. Children give flowers and presents to their mothers....
3. The Queen’s Official Birthday. Saturday after the 9th of June. A ceremonial meeting of the guards in the presence of the Queen....
4. Halloween – the 31st of October. Children dress up in Halloween costumes with masks on their faces. They carry baskets and they go to their friend’s and neighbour’s houses and they knock at the door. People give them sweets, fruit or money.....
5. Bonfire Night. The 5th of November. People remember the day in 1605 when a group of people tried to blow up the House of Lords with gunpowder. They were all executed and Guy Fawkes is the most famous of the conspirators......
6. Christmas........ ... .... ....

4.) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA.....
AUSTRALIA.
Australia is the smallest continent on the Earth. It has the population of about 18 million people. The capital city is Canberra. The currency is 1 Australian dollar and the official language spoken is English....
Australia is situated between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The island of Tasmania and some other islands belong to Australia. It´s a federal state and it consists of:
6 states and 2 territories.....
The largest cities in Australia are: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide....
The neighbouring countries:
Indonesia. Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Islands. Vanatu. New Zeland.....

In central Australia there are 3 deserts:
Sandy Desert. Gibson Desert. Great Victoria Desert.....

Interesting places in Australia.
1. Sydney. A place where in 2000 the Olympic Games were held. It´s a popular tourist place. There is the famous Opera House. There are many cultural events held – concerts, theatre performance, modern dance and so on. Some people go to Sydney to climb the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It’s a very adrenalin experience.....
2. Canberra. the capital city of Australia and the biggest city in Australia. People can see the Australian National Gallery, the Canberra Theatre and Playhouse, the Australian War Memorial and other places....
The National Library of Australia is also famous – a copy of every book which is published in Australia, must be held by the National Library of Australia. It is given by Australian law....
3. Melbourne. visitors go to Melbourne to see the Carlton Gardens, the Melbourne Museum and other sightseeing places......

Famous are hills Uluru. Ayers Rock (600 million years old, the largest of this kind in the world, it changes colour from yellow to gold, red, purple)... Mount Kosciusko – the Snowy Mountain... the Great Barrier Reef (the world's largest coral reef system, located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of northeast Australia).....

NEW ZEALAND.
New Zealand is an island state in Oceania. It is situated in the Pacific ocean. It has the population of about 4 million people. It consists of:
2 main islands: The North Island, and the South Island.
And there are also other smaller islands....

The nearest neighbours are:
New Caledonia. Fiji. And Tonga....

The capital city is Wellington. The official head of New Zealand is Queen Elizabeth the second. The official languages are English and Maori....
Other big cities in New Zealand are Auckland, Christchurch, Hamilton....

1. Auckland. It is in the North Island. Visitors can see many beautiful parks in Auckland. For example: Auckland Domain, Albert Park, Victoria Park.....
2. Christchurch in the South Island. It was named after the Christ Church Cathedral....
3. Wellington. It is the capital city of New Zealand. The seat of the parliament. It´s the political centre of New Zealand, but also the centre of theatre and film industry. Visitors can visit the Museum of New Zealand, and the Royal New Zealand Ballet.... There are also many night clubs, art and cultural events. People living in Wellington have a very good quality of life according to statistics.....
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