USA in the 19th century

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Dátum: 15.07.2013
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USA in the 19th century
 
New territories
- In 1800 the western boundary of the United Stares was the Mississippi river. In 1850 the United States stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
- Louisiana belonged to France and Americans feared that Napoleon might send there soldiers and settlers to block the further westward growth of the Unites States. In 1803 was Louisiana sold to the United States for fifteen million dollars. Louisiana stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian borders and west from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. Its purchase doubled the land of the US and there were formed all or parts of 13 new states. They bought Florida from Spain in 1819; in 1845 they gained Texas, gained California after winning the Mexican-American war in1846-1848, and bought Alaska in 1867 form Russia.
 
Rozšírenie územia:
- 1800 – hranica – rieka Mississippi
- 1850 – od oceána k oceánu, od veľkých jazier k Mexickému zálivu – ako dnes (okrem Aljašky a Havajských ostrovov)
- územné zisky – 1803 – Napoleon predal Louisianu – územie USA sa zdvojnásobilo
- neskôr vojnou (Florida, Texas, Kalifornia), kúpou (Aljaška)
 
Slavery and the abolitionists
- There were smaller farms in the north, the climate was cooler and farmers did not need slaves to work for them. The northern states opposed slavery for moral and religious reasons also. Many were abolitionists – people who wanted to end or abolish slavery. Many northern states had passed laws abolishing slavery inside their own boundaries. In 1807 was abolished the international slave trade.
- Missouri compromise – By the 1820´s southern and northern politicians were arguing whether slavery should be permitted in the new territories that were being settled in the West. The argument centered on the Missouri territory, which was part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southerners argued that slave labor should be allowed in Missouri and all the other lands that formed part of the Louisiana Purchase. Abolitionists and northerners objected strongly to this. Northern farmers moving west did not want to find themselves competing for land against southerners who had slaves to do their work for them. Two sides agreed on a compromise. Slavery would be permitted in the Missouri and Arkansas territories but banned in lands to the west and north of Missouri.
- in 1850 California was admitted to the United States as a free state, while people who lived in Utah and New Mexico were given right to decide.
- 1850 – Fugitive Slave Act – this law made it easier for southerners to recapture slaves who escaped from their masters to free slaves. Slave owners offered rewards and this had created s group of men called “bounty hunters”. These men made their living by hunting down fugitive slaves in order to collect the rewards in them. Many northerners opposed the act and provided food, money, and hiding places for fugitives.
- In 1854 was Missouri compromise no longer valid. Kansas should vote whether to permit slavery there. Each group was determined to outnumber the other.

Otroctvo a jeho zrušenie
- sever – menšie farmy, priemysel – neuznávali otroctvo aj z morálnych a náboženských príčin, zakazovali otroctvo na území svojich štátov
- juh – plantáže – potrebná pracovná sila - otroci
- 1807 – zákaz dovozu otrokov do USA
- 1820 – missourský kompromis – rovnováha medzi PRO a PROTI otrokárskymi štátmi
- 1850 – Fugitive Slave Act – ak otroci ušli do slobodných krajín, mohli byť znova chytení → otroci utekali do Kanady
- 1854 – Kansas – obe strany (PRO aj PROTI otrokom) sa snažia získať prevahu v Kansase – ukázalo sa, že v jednom štáte nemôžu byť oba spôsoby života a výroby
 
Industry and transportation
- Argument over import duties – northern states favored such duties because they protected their young industries against the competition of foreign manufactured goods. Southern states opposed them because southerners relied upon foreign manufacturers for both necessities and luxuries of many kinds.
- 1849 - 1855 – California Gold Rush - 300,000 people came to California from the rest of the United States and abroad by sailing ships and covered wagons.
- mining – Nevada, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, Dakota.
- Union Pacific Railroad Company and Central Pacific Railroad Company were granted land and money to build a railroad west from the Mississippi towards the Pacific and eastward to California. Finally, on May 10,1869, the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific lines met at Promontory Point in Utah. The first railroad across the North America continent was completed. The new railroad was quickly joined by other. By 1884 four more major line had crossed the continent to link the Mississippi valley with the Pacific Coast. These transcontinental railroads reduced the time that it took to travel across the United States from week to days.
 
Priemysel a doprava
- priemyselná revolúcia sa začala neskôr – mohla sa rýchlejšie rozvíjať. Sever chcel obmedziť dovoz, aby sa priemysel rýchlejšie rozvíjal, juh chcel dovážať stroje (využívané v poľnohospodárstve) a výrobky
- železnica – 1869 – spojenie oboch pobreží
- parníky – prevoz osadníkov (rieky, pobrežie)

Civil War -1861-1865

- In 1860 was Abraham Lincoln elected president but a majority in every southern state voted against him. In December 1860, the state of South Carolina voted to secede from the United States and it was soon followed by ten more southern states. In February 1861, the eleven states announced that they were now an independent nation, the Confederate states of America – Confederacy. They elected new president – Jefferson Davis.
 - Beginning - April 12, 1861 – confederates started fighting on Fort Sumter, which was occupied by United States – Union.
- The war Union warships blockaded the ports of the South. This prevented Confederacy form selling its cotton abroad and from obtaining foreign supplies.
- The North was much stronger than the South in both material resources and men. The North had a population of 22 million people and the South only 9 million people and 3.5 of them were slaves. The North grew more food crops, had more than five times the manufacturing capacity (including most of the country’s weapon factories). So the North had more fighting men, could keep them better supplied with weapons, clothing, and food.
- The only way the North could win the war was to invade the South.
- The war was fought in two main areas – in Virginia and the other coast states of the Confederacy, and the Mississippi valley.
- The Confederate general – Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson; Union army was led by General Ulysses S. Grant
- In June 1863 both armies met near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee was defeated and Confederate army never recovered.
- End – April 9, 1865 – Grant and Lee met near Appomattox and Lee surrender his army.
- the war ended slavery by 13th amendment to the Constitution and it was decided that the United States was one nation, whose parts could not be separated.
 
Občianska vojna (1861-1865)
 - 1860 – prezidentom sa stáva Abraham Lincoln – zastáva názory severu
- 1861 – The Emancipation Proclamation – prezident zrušil otroctvo
- južné štáty (najprv Južná Karolína a potom Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virgínia, Arkansas, Severná Karolína, Tennessee) – spolu 11 štátov vystúpilo z Únie a vytvorilo Konfederáciu (konfederované americké štáty), prezidentom sa stáva Jefferson Davis, hlavné mesto Richmond 
- začiatok vojny – útok južanmi na pevnosť Sumter
- severania zablokovali južanské prístavy (nemohli dovážať zbrane a výzbroj)
- severania – rozvinutejší priemysel, muži vo vojsku aj prisťahovalci (sľub, že ak budú bojovať, dostanú pôdu)
- bojovalo sa len na území juhu a južania s väčším nadšením bránilo svoje domovy
- na čele vojsk – Konfederácia (juh) - Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson, na čele Únie Ulysses S. Grant
- porážka severu – Gettysburg, Appomattox
-13-tý dodatok – štát je nedeliteľný
- straty – viac ako 500 000 vojakov a civilistov
 
Reconstruction
- April 15, 1865 – Lincoln was assassinated and succeeded as President by his Vice President, Andrew Johnson. Johnson introduced plans to reunite the South with the rest of the nation.
- July 1866 – congress passed a Civil Rights Act, also set up an organization called Freedmen’s Bureau – both measures were intended to ensure that blacks in the South were not cheated of their rights. Congress also introduced the 14th Amendment – it gave blacks full rights of citizenship, including the right to vote.
- In March 1867 was passed the Reconstruction Act – this dismissed the white governments of the southern states and placed them under military rule.
 
Rekonštrukcia južných štátov
- po zavraždení Lincolna – nový prezident – Andrew Johnson – potrestať jednotlivých ľudí, nie juh ako celok (myšlienka Lincolna)
- 14-tý dodatok – černosi dostali všetky práva, vrátane práva voliť. Po odsune vojsk z juhu, sú ich práva zrušené (rovnoprávnosť dosiahnutá až v druhej polovici 20. storočia)
 
Foreign policy
1823 - Monroe Doctrine - proclaimed that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas. The United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and its colonies.
 
Zahraničná politika
- 1823 – Monroeova doktrína – Američania sa nedajú zatiahnuť do európskych konfliktov a nenechajú si od Európy zasahovať do svojej politiky
 
Immigration
- The United States, in the 19th Century, remained a strong magnet to immigrants, with offers of jobs and land for farms. Glowing reports from earlier arrivals who made good reinforced the notion that in America, the streets were, "paved with gold," as well as offerings of religious and political freedom.
 
Prisťahovalectvo
- krajiny lákala pre priaznivé podmienky, nízke ceny pôdy, slobodné pomery (náboženské, národné, žiadna vojenská služba)
- začiatkom 19.storočia - 6-10 tisíc prisťahovalcom ročne, po roku 1832 – 50 tisíc ročne, koniec 19.storočia – aj 2000 denne
-1910 – 14,5 obyvateľov USA sa narodilo v inej krajine
Oboduj prácu: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (10-najlepšie, priemer: 6)

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