Family

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 925 slov
Počet zobrazení: 28 119
Tlačení: 463
Uložení: 528
Praktické!

FAMILY
Family is a group of people, consisting of one or two parents and their children who share certain goals and values1 and live together in one home. Living in the family is very important for every human being. Therefore, it fulfils a biological, sociological, emotional, economical and educational function in modern society. (1value- hodnota)
 
a)  A curriculum vitae (CV) is a document that lists your qualifications and previous and current employment. It is included as a part of your job application, and it is meant to introduce you and your background to somebody who does not know you. It should present you in the best possible light and in a concise (=stručný) and structured manner. It should be sent with a cover letter.
The CV should contain:
1.  Personal Details- full name, date of birth, birthplace, contact address, contact details, nationality;
2.  Education- achieved results ( in the reverse chronological order);
3.  Work Experience- current work position, responsibilities, working backwards ( in the reverse chronological order). The students should include internships (=stáž), part-time jobs, summer work, etc.
4.  Skills and Competence (=Zručnosti a schopnosti)- IT, languages, touch-typing, driving licence...;
5.  Interests- sports and other activities;
6.  References (=Doporučenie)- contact details of person who can give a recommendation;
b) Family members:

Marital status:

Relations:

Married
Uncle= strýko

Single
Aunt= teta

Divorced
Nephew= synovec

Widowed
Niece= neter

Vocabulary connected with family:
Husband= manžel
engagement= zasnúbenie
Wife= manželka
to be engaged = byť zasnúbený
Spouse= manžel, manželka
widow/ widower= vdova/vdovec
Fiancé= snúbenec
proposal= žiadosť o ruku

Fiancée= snúbenica
to propose= požiadať niekoho o ruku
Cousin= bratranec, sesternica
relation= príbuzný

step (sister, father, mother)= nevlastný (sestra, otec, matka)
kinship= príbuzenstvo
mother-in-law/ father-in-law= svokra/svokor
next of kin= najbližšia rodina
sister-in-law/ brother-in-law=  švagriná, švagor
wedding anniversary= výročie svadby
daughter-in-law/ son-in-law= nevesta/ zať
family background= rodinné zázemie
great-grandmother/ great-grandfather= prababička/ pradedo
registry office= matrika
bring upvychovávat

rear= vychovať
take after someone, resemble= podať sa na niekoho
Inherit= dediť
descendant, offspring= potomok
ancestor= predok

Types of family:
· nuclear family= consist of mother, father and children;
· single-parent / one-parent family;
· extended family = your entire family,  this type of family generally consist of 3 or more generations living in the same household;
immediate family = your closest relatives;
 
Describing people:
According to their appearance(vzhľad):
Stages of life:
·  Child(0-12):
o  Neonate/ newborn(0-30 days)-novorodenec,
o  infant(1-12months)- dojča,
o  toddler(1-3years)-batoľa,
o  primary school age;
·  Adolescence(13-19 years);
·  Adult(20+ years):
o  early adulthood,
o  middle adulthood,
o  advanced adulthood/senior citizen (60+ years);
 
Figure:
People are built in all shapes and sizes. There are those who are fat and overweight. Some people are extremely overweight and are obese. Other people are naturally slim, but others look has absolutely no fat on them and are thin, or skinny.
 
Vocabulary:

crooked= zhrbený
stocky- zavalitý
well-proportioned
wiry, muscular- svalnatý
hourglass figure
lean- chudý
flabby muscles- ochabnuté svaly
fit- v dobrej kondícii

Colouring:
Variation in natural skin colour is mainly due to genetics. You are born with a colour: white- Caucasian(belošský), black or Asian. People whose parents are different ethnic origin are mixed-race.
·  fair skin/ pale skin/ fair complexion (bledá pokožka)- tan easily and has to be careful in the sun.
·  dark-skinned;
Brown-haired people are often known as brunettes/brunets.
Hair colours: black, brown, blonde, red( ginger hair), gray.
Gray hair colour typically occurs naturally as people age.
 
Face:
Faces, like build, vary a lot. Some people have oval faces – their foreheads are much wider than their chins. Other people have heart-shaped, square or round faces.
 
Face- vocabulary:
rosy cheeks= ružové líca
freckles= pehy
regular teeth
broad nose= široký nos
bushy eyebrows= husté obočie
narrow nose= úzky nos
moustache= fúzy
a snub nose= na konci zahnutý dohora
beard= brada
hooked nose= orlí nos

Teeth can be corrected by wearing a brace( zubný strojček) which straightened them.
Hair: long/ short, curly/ wavy/ straight,
Fringe=ofina; hair is cut horizontally across a forehead.
Someone is going bald= is losing his hair.
Receding hair= ustupujúce vlasy;
Children often take after their parents in appearance, temperament, or character.
 
Hobbies
Many people spend their leisure time practising their hobbies. Family members share some common hobbies. The most popular hobbies among the family members are keeping a pet, doing sport activities, gardening, watching TV, participating at cultural events etc.
 
c) Family relationships
Human relationship describes the way people get on with each other, talk and behave towards each other. Relationships are created between parents, children, married couples etc. Families are the basic social units in which informal relationships are formed.
As members of family we have different relationships with the people we live with. The people closest to us are our parents. They care of our health, problems and pains.  The relationship with our parents is special: we love them, but we have to respect and obey them as they are responsible for our upbringing.
However, much closer to us are our siblings. They are from the same generation, share similar hobbies and sometimes have the same opinions. Children often quarrel with each other, and these arguments – or squabbles – are often quickly resolved. In fact, sibling rivalry (the competition between brothers and sisters) is quite common.
Then there is relationship with our grandparents. It´s similar to relationship with our parents, but there is one difference – they are much older than us(generation gap), so we have to respect them so much.
family feuds= rodinné spory
a family member is estranged from his / her family= odcudzený
If parents decide they no longer want anything to do with their children, they disinherit them. (=decide not to leave them anything when they die, vydediť)
 
Functions of family members
All family members have specific social roles with various duties and responsibilities. Domestic chores should be assigned to every family member. In healthy families, every member is responsible for fulfilling certain roles.
The main role of parents is to raise their children. Patents take care of their children from their births until they grow up. There are different types of parents: democratic, authoritative, liberal and over-caring(see YES, page 9). The main role of children is learning and going to school. Children are also expected to help their parents. Children should always give back their parent’s love.  
 
Family gathering
Families get together for various occasions and anniversaries, such as birthdays, graduations, weddings, christening and confirmation parties, church feasts and funerals. These family gatherings are important for many members of family because there they can see their whole family and have the chance to talk to people who they don’t see very often.
 
d) Ideas about your future
  People have different ideas about their future family life. In my opinion, people at my age don’t have any serious plans about their future. They just have little dreams but their future family life is taught to be unpredictable for them. Main priorities of youngsters are being with friends, falling in love, get to university and be happy. Young people don’t have to worry about their future partner or job, they should do what make them happy and be with people who make them happy. They can have dreams and goals and should try to satisfy them.
Futute partner
- should share similar hobbies and interests
- love me in spite of my faults and bad properties
- should be: responsible, humorous, sensible, intelligent, understanding, employed…
- should be able to take care of children, spend time with them(tell fairy tales, play games, go to  walk with them..)and learn them new abilities/skills/knowledges (sport activities)
( life expectations = životné očakávania)
 
e) Function of family
One of the primary functions of the family is to produce and reproduce persons, biologically and socially. In addition, family provides support in need, protection, education, socialization and care for sick. Family makes home. At home people learn all the skills which they need for life: how to get on with people, how to be tolerant, selfdisciplined, polite and helpful.

Family in the past and present
The most significant difference in family life in the past and now is different role of a woman in a family. Women used to bring up children on their own; they used to do domestic chores, such as cooking, shopping, cleaning, without any help. Now, husbands often help them, we can see more and more fathers pushing prams. Moreover, there are some men who decide to stay at home with their babies on maternity leave.
In the past, the main ambition of women was to get married and bring up children immediately after they had completed their basic education. Today, career and education are more important for them.
More parents used to be stricter with their children. Now, parents are busy and they do not have enough time for their children. They don’t rear their children according to old habits, but by psychological observation. Nowadays there are too many spoilt children because of better financial situation and more comfortable life. Modern families discuss problems more and try to solve them. They are much more concerned with the quality of life and they plan the size of their family carefully according to their financial situation.
In the past, divorce was forbidden, especially for religious reasons. On the other hand, there are too many separated families and many children grow up in broken families what could have bad impact on their social development. 
 
Generation gap
Usually, when the children become teenagers, their parents start to have problems with them. Teenagers want to spend more time with their friends, make their own decisions and complain that their parents do not understand them. Teenagers are sometimes rude and lazy. These problems between teenagers and their parents are because of generation gap. They should talk to each other and try to find solutions together. Parents should be more respectful and considerate and their children should obey them and try to get along with them.

Single parent families
There are many facts involving single parenting in the social spectrum of the world today. Single parenting has become an accepted norm in most countries. Single parent family structure is often a result of divorce, unplanned pregnancy of single woman, or other factors like death of a partner.
Family should consist of two parents because single parent families cannot give their children everything what they need. Mainly children need love from both of parents.
Problems of single parenting: 
· lack of attention towards children
· lower income
· single parent has to bear with added responsibilities, tensions and pressures 
Divorce
Nowadays, marriage is often broken and the rate of divorce is growing. The common reasons are different interests, lack of faith and trust, infidelity(nevera), financial reasons, unemployment and addiction to alcohol, drugs and gambling such as slot machines. Partners should talk together and try to find solution because divorce could be very bad result mainly for children.
 
Birthrate
  In the past, couples used to have more children nevertheless people were poorer and used to live modestly. It is quite different now. Most modern families have only one child and bigger fortune, they want to have comfortable life and having children also means lot of duties and responsibilities for them. Currently, people have better access to sex education and contraception than in the past.  
Oboduj prácu: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (10-najlepšie, priemer: 7.8)

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