Family is a group of people, consisting of one or two parents and their
children who share certain goals and values1 and live together in one home. Living in the family is very important for every human being. Therefore,
it fulfils a biological, sociological, emotional, economical and educational function in modern society. (1value- hodnota)
A curriculum vitae (CV) is a document that lists your qualifications and previous and current employment. It is included as a part
of your job application, and it is meant to introduce you and your background to somebody who does not know you. It should present you in the best
possible light and in a concise (=stručný) and structured manner. It should be sent with a cover letter.
The CV should contain:
1. Personal Details- full name, date of birth, birthplace, contact address, contact details, nationality;
achieved results ( in the reverse chronological order);
3. Work Experience- current work position, responsibilities, working backwards ( in
the reverse chronological order). The students should include internships (=stáž), part-time jobs, summer work, etc.
4. Skills and
Competence (=Zručnosti a schopnosti)- IT, languages, touch-typing, driving licence...;
5. Interests- sports and
6. References (=Doporučenie)- contact details of person who can give a recommendation;
Vocabulary connected with family:
engaged = byť zasnúbený
Spouse= manžel, manželka
proposal= žiadosť o ruku
to propose= požiadať niekoho o ruku
step (sister, father,
mother)= nevlastný (sestra, otec, matka)
mother-in-law/ father-in-law= svokra/svokor
next of kin= najbližšia rodina
sister-in-law/ brother-in-law= švagriná, švagor
wedding anniversary= výročie
daughter-in-law/ son-in-law= nevesta/ zať
family background= rodinné
great-grandmother/ great-grandfather= prababička/
registry office= matrika
take after someone, resemble=
podať sa na niekoho
Types of family:
· nuclear family= consist of mother,
father and children;
· single-parent / one-parent family;
· extended family = your
entire family, this type of family generally consist of 3 or more generations living in the same household;
= your closest relatives;
According to their appearance(vzhľad):
o Neonate/ newborn(0-30 days)-novorodenec,
o infant(1-12months)- dojča,
o primary school age;
· Adolescence(13-19 years);
· Adult(20+ years):
o early adulthood,
o middle adulthood,
o advanced adulthood/senior citizen (60+ years);
People are built in all shapes and sizes. There are those who are fat and
overweight. Some people are extremely overweight and are obese. Other people are naturally
slim, but others look has absolutely no fat on them and are thin, or skinny.
flabby muscles- ochabnuté svaly
fit- v dobrej kondícii
Variation in natural skin colour is mainly due to genetics. You are born with a colour: white-
Caucasian(belošský), black or Asian. People whose parents are different ethnic origin are mixed-race.
· fair skin/ pale skin/
fair complexion (bledá pokožka)- tan easily and has to be careful in the sun.
Brown-haired people are often
known as brunettes/brunets.
Hair colours: black, brown, blonde, red( ginger hair), gray.
Gray hair colour typically occurs naturally as
Faces, like build, vary a lot. Some people have oval faces – their foreheads are much
wider than their chins. Other people have heart-shaped, square or round faces.
rosy cheeks= ružové líca
bushy eyebrows= husté obočie
narrow nose= úzky nos
a snub nose= na konci zahnutý dohora
hooked nose= orlí nos
Teeth can be corrected by wearing a brace( zubný strojček) which
Hair: long/ short, curly/ wavy/ straight,
Fringe=ofina; hair is cut horizontally across a forehead.
Someone is going bald= is losing his hair.
Receding hair= ustupujúce vlasy;
Children often take after their parents in
appearance, temperament, or character.
Many people spend their leisure time practising their
hobbies. Family members share some common hobbies. The most popular hobbies among the family members are keeping a pet, doing sport activities,
gardening, watching TV, participating at cultural events etc.
c) Family relationships
relationship describes the way people get on with each other, talk and behave towards each other. Relationships are created between parents,
children, married couples etc. Families are the basic social units in which informal relationships are formed.
As members of family we have
different relationships with the people we live with. The people closest to us are our parents. They care of our health, problems and pains. The
relationship with our parents is special: we love them, but we have to respect and obey them as they are responsible for our upbringing.
However, much closer to us are our siblings. They are from the same generation, share similar hobbies and sometimes have the same opinions. Children
often quarrel with each other, and these arguments – or squabbles – are often quickly resolved. In fact,
sibling rivalry (the competition between brothers and sisters) is quite common.
Then there is relationship with our
grandparents. It´s similar to relationship with our parents, but there is one difference – they are much older than us(generation gap), so we have
to respect them so much.
family feuds= rodinné spory
a family member is estranged from his /
her family= odcudzený
If parents decide they no longer want anything to do with their children, they disinherit them.
(=decide not to leave them anything when they die, vydediť)
Functions of family members
All family members have
specific social roles with various duties and responsibilities. Domestic chores should be assigned to every family member. In healthy families,
every member is responsible for fulfilling certain roles.
The main role of parents is to raise their children. Patents take care of their
children from their births until they grow up. There are different types of parents: democratic, authoritative, liberal and over-caring(see
YES, page 9). The main role of children is learning and going to school. Children are also expected to help their parents. Children should always give
back their parent’s love.
Families get together for various occasions and anniversaries, such as
birthdays, graduations, weddings, christening and confirmation parties, church feasts and funerals. These family gatherings are important for many
members of family because there they can see their whole family and have the chance to talk to people who they don’t see very often.
d) Ideas about your future
People have different ideas about their future family life. In my opinion, people at my age don’t have
any serious plans about their future. They just have little dreams but their future family life is taught to be unpredictable for them. Main
priorities of youngsters are being with friends, falling in love, get to university and be happy. Young people don’t have to worry about their
future partner or job, they should do what make them happy and be with people who make them happy. They can have dreams and goals and should try to
- should share similar hobbies and interests
- love me in spite of my faults and bad properties
- should be: responsible, humorous, sensible, intelligent, understanding, employed…
- should be able to take care of children, spend time with
them(tell fairy tales, play games, go to walk with them..)and learn them new abilities/skills/knowledges (sport activities)
expectations = životné očakávania)
e) Function of family
One of the primary functions of the family is to produce and
reproduce persons, biologically and socially. In addition, family provides support in need, protection, education, socialization and
care for sick. Family makes home. At home people learn all the skills which they need for life: how to get on with people, how to be tolerant,
selfdisciplined, polite and helpful.
Family in the past and present
The most significant difference in family life in the
past and now is different role of a woman in a family. Women used to bring up children on their own; they used to do domestic chores, such as
cooking, shopping, cleaning, without any help. Now, husbands often help them, we can see more and more fathers pushing prams. Moreover, there are
some men who decide to stay at home with their babies on maternity leave.
In the past, the main ambition of women was to get married and bring
up children immediately after they had completed their basic education. Today, career and education are more important for them.
used to be stricter with their children. Now, parents are busy and they do not have enough time for their children. They don’t rear their children
according to old habits, but by psychological observation. Nowadays there are too many spoilt children because of better financial situation and
more comfortable life. Modern families discuss problems more and try to solve them. They are much more concerned with the quality of life and they
plan the size of their family carefully according to their financial situation.
In the past, divorce was forbidden, especially for religious
reasons. On the other hand, there are too many separated families and many children grow up in broken families what could have bad
impact on their social development.
Usually, when the children become teenagers, their parents start to
have problems with them. Teenagers want to spend more time with their friends, make their own decisions and complain that their parents do not
understand them. Teenagers are sometimes rude and lazy. These problems between teenagers and their parents are because of generation gap. They should
talk to each other and try to find solutions together. Parents should be more respectful and considerate and their children should obey them and try
to get along with them.
Single parent families
There are many facts involving single parenting in the social spectrum of
the world today. Single parenting has become an accepted norm in most countries. Single parent family structure is often a result of divorce,
unplanned pregnancy of single woman, or other factors like death of a partner.
Family should consist of two parents because single parent
families cannot give their children everything what they need. Mainly children need love from both of parents.
Problems of single
· lack of attention towards children
· lower income
· single parent has to bear with added
responsibilities, tensions and pressures
Nowadays, marriage is often broken and the rate
of divorce is growing. The common reasons are different interests, lack of faith and trust, infidelity(nevera), financial reasons,
unemployment and addiction to alcohol, drugs and gambling such as slot machines. Partners should talk together and try to find solution because
divorce could be very bad result mainly for children.
In the past, couples used to have more children
nevertheless people were poorer and used to live modestly. It is quite different now. Most modern families have only one child and bigger fortune,
they want to have comfortable life and having children also means lot of duties and responsibilities for them. Currently, people have better access
to sex education and contraception than in the past.
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