Health Care

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: sp-prace (13)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 3 285 slov
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Health Care
Good health is essential to human welfare and to sustained economic and social development. The exact definition says that health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Undoubtedly health is one of the most valuable things which man can’t just simply buy for money. Furthermore, a body that is in great physical and psychical stage is expected to manage more everyday activities and solve serious problems and stressful situations much easier than it is possible with some kind of illness or sickness. We need to be in good shape and also have good mental health to work and fully enjoy our lives.

Human body is the most complicated structure on the planet and even today some parts, functions and reactions of organism are unexplained. Trying to explore the whole body system, doctors and scientists are still fascinated by perfect composition of each organ in the body that is made up of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. The average height of an adult human is about 1.7 – 1.8 m. First of all I’d like to describe the human body. The head is the upper part of our body containing the skull, brain, hair, eyes, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, teeth, tongue and chin. The trunk connects our head with the neck. The arm consists of shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. Each hand has a palm and 5 fingers. The leg consists of the thigh, knee, calf and foot with its heel. All the body is covered by skin and there are lots of bones. Inside the body there are many organs. The most important are the heart and lungs. The others are: liver, stomach and blood.

Functions of organs:

Eyes- An eye is a round-shaped organ that works with the brain to provide us with vision. Though many eye-problems may be minor and will clear up with self-treatment, some may be serious and demand urgent medical attention. With age come vision changes and the increasing risk of developing more serious eye problems.
Mouth- mechanical digestion, chewing, swallow food, form words in speech.
Teeth- give a shape to the face, speaking clearly, chewing food. In order to avoid problems man has to regularly visit a dentist, daily brushing and flossing. 
Skin- performs a range of essential complex functions, including temperature control and the removal of waste fluids, and it is the largest organ in the body.
Heart- is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood, which carries all the vital materials which help our bodies function and removes the waste products that we do not need. If the heart ever ceases to pump blood the body begins to shut down and after a very short period of time will die.
Lungs- is essential respiration organ, provide breathing. Damages of lungs are often caused by smoking. 
Medical care of any type in our country is free of charge, although there are now many private doctors. We don't pay for prescription or for some medicines. But for other medicines, especially for those from abroad, we must pay. If we fall ill or if we have an accident, we go to the Health Centre, Policlinic, Hospital or to some Private Doctor. Many factories and offices have their own doctors. To improve the situation and promote the competition we can choose our doctors now.
There are various types of physicians who treat various diseases and disorders. They are e g. GP (general practitioners), dentists, surgeons, interns, oculists, pediatricians, gynecologists, psychiatrists, dermatologists, ear and throat specialists, orthopedic specialists.
Illnesses can be classified as light, heavy, fatal ones, infectious, short or long ones, injuries as light, heavy, serious, lethal ones. However it's impossible to qualify everything as illness, sickness or disease. In case of light disorders or ailments we usually say: I feel unwell, I feel seedy or dizzy, I feel sick, I have a headache, I have a cold. We cannot underrate any kind of illness. A patient getting over a feverish sickness without taking to (staying in) bed takes a risk, as it usually leaves traces, sometimes very dangerous ones.
We can suffer from various illnesses beginning with common children diseases such as: chicken-pox, mumps, measles, scarlet fever, otitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, which are a scourge for children of kindergarten and school age. But owing to vaccination and hygiene, diseases like diphtheria, measles, infantile paralysis, hepatitis aren't a serious danger for them any more.
We usually suffer from common infections such as cold, flu (influenza), tonsillitis, indigestion, diarrhoea or constipation. Thanks to new and effective medicaments like various kinds of antibiotics even these feverish diseases are no more dangerous to life. A patient usually has to stay in bed, drink warm tea with lemon and honey, perspire, take pills, drops or vitamins, test his temperature and sleep as much as possible. However the situation may sometimes be more serious and needs special treatment in hospital, e.g. heart attack, appendicitis, breaking an arm or leg, animal or snake bite, severe bleeding, poisoning, unconsciousness or in case of some real dangerous diseases such as tuberculosis, anemia, pneumonia, leukemia, diabetes, hepatitis etc. The doctor’s care must be very attentive because human life is in danger. It is the same with all possible operations and surgical interferences. The biggest threat is insidious disease like cancer or encephalitis whose virus is transferred by ticks. The last world threat is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) which cannot be cured. One must protect himself from such a disease by increased caution and by observing hygienic laws and advice.

Each person should undergo a regular check-up at last once a year. However we usually go to see our doctor when we don t feel well or have a temperature. There are various types of medical treatment for our different types of troubles. Doctor may ask you to strip to the waist before he/she examines your chest and throat. They check our blood pressure, feel the pulse or put our blood or urine through lab-tests to take for example a blood count. They look down our throat, see our tongue and listen to our heart and lungs. Sometimes they may X-ray our lungs or bones. We must go through many types of vaccination during our lives. Dentists may check our teeth and sometimes pull out one of them or drill and fill them. For older people they sometimes fit bridges on their teeth or make dentures. Doctors usually prescribe some medicines to us - pills, antibiotics, gargling, eye-wash, sleeping pills, ointments or they tell us to go on a diet. After operations, scars remain on our bodies.
For many people, bad health begins with a bad diet. Some eat the wrong kind of food. Others eat too much or too little. It’s not surprising that people like this often become ill. On the other hand, people concerned about their health eat healthier food. They try to eat regularly, avoid eating chips, hamburgers, food in tins and packets. Instead, they try to eat fresh fruit and vegetables, brown bread, fish and white meat and reduce the amount of salt, fat, and sugar.
 Modern life is full of pressure and problems. Some people can control these. They sleep well, enjoy life, don’t worry very much and try to avoid stressful situations as much as possible. They know how to relax and that relaxation helps the body to rest and repair itself. Others are the opposite. They sleep badly, don’t enjoy life and worry all the time. People like this are suffering from stress. Stress is a kind of illness itself and it can lead to many others.
 Exercise is very important for good health. Without it the body becomes slow and fat. It also becomes weak and less able to fight illness. Unfortunately, modern life makes it very easy to be lazy.
 When we are ill, we usually see a doctor (GP – general practitioner). The doctor examines our body, asks about the symptoms and usually prescribes some medication, which is usually available on prescription in a pharmacy. In some cases we need to make an appointment with a specialist. When the illness is too serious to be treated at home, we are taken to hospital and sometimes even undergo surgery.
 People who are employed pay their health insurance monthly. They do not need to pay for basic health care and basic medication. When they want extra care or special treatment, they have to pay the extra costs. Some people decide to go to a private health care establishment, usually for surgical interventions, delivery or dental care.
 Everybody goes through various diseases during their childhood and adult life. Most of the diseases are not serious and do not take a long time to cure because we have efficient medication against them. Such diseases are flu, tuberculosis, or scarlet fever. However, there are diseases which we have problems to cure or cannot cure at all yet, such as cancer, AIDS or heart attacks.
 A healthy lifestyle, prevention and personal responsibility for our health can help us avoid possible dangers. Many people care about their health, go to the doctor for check-ups, get eye exams done, weigh themselves regularly and see the dentist twice a year. Others still need to learn that good health means a longer and happier life and that they need to care about themselves.
 The health and social care sector covers a range of services across a range of organizations within the public, private and voluntary sectors, including hospitals, hospices, nursing and care homes, medical and dental practices, ambulance transportation and complementary medicine A good health system delivers quality services to all people, when and where they need them. The exact configuration of services varies from country to country, but in all cases requires a robust financing mechanism; a well-trained and adequately paid workforce; reliable information on which to base decisions and policies; well maintained facilities and logistics to deliver quality medicines and technologies.

At the doctor´s
We have to wait in the waiting room until the nurse invites us into the consulting room. The nurse has to look for our medical record and wants to see our insurance card. Then she takes our temperature, checks the blood pressure, takes the blood , puts urine through lab tests. After all we are ready to enter the surgery. The doctor usually asks us how we feel, what problems we are having or what´s bothering us. If we suffer from a headache, a sore throat, a cold or a cough we have to say about it. Then the doctor asks us to strip to the waist because he or she must examine our chest, listen to our lungs and heart. We have to take a deep breath or stop breathing according to his orders. Finally the doctor diagnoses the case and therapy, prescribes for us some medicine (prescription) and sets a date when we should see him again. Then we go to the pharmacy (to the chemist´s in Britain) where we get:
-  antibiotics,pills *  gargle *  syrup
-  vitamins  *  ointments *  powder
We have to take a medicine according to the doctor´s advice. Every household should have a well-stocked first-aid box. It should contain: a clinical thermometer, cotton wool, bandages, plasters, scissors, some pain killers and so on.
In more serious cases - at injuries, casualties or case of unconsciousness - comes an ambulance car and drivers transported one to the hospital. In some heavy injury the helicopter is called up. Sometimes it is necessary to render first aid, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration, fixing a fractured extremity etc. Bigger ambulance cars have also got apparatus for oxygen, a reserve of infusions etc. More serious causes - such as heater attack, appendices, breaking bones, animal or snake bite, severe bleeding, poisoning, tuberculosis, pneumonia etc. - sometimes needs special treatment in the hospital, the doctor’s care must be very attentive because human life is in danger. It is the same situation with all possible operations and surgeon interference. Heavy bleeding patients are at once anaesthetized by an injection or an inhalation of a narcotic and operated at the theatre.
It is enough to say that there are still diseases which cannot be cured such as cancer or encephalitis whose virus is transferred by ticks and the last world threat is AIDS - because of this one must protect himself from such diseases by increased caution.

We must go through many types of vaccination during our lives. Doctors usually prescribe some medicine to us - mainly pills, antibiotics, drops or ointments. Scarlet fever, bronchitis, otitis, chicken-pox, mumps etc. are dangerous for children of kindergarten or school age but owing to vaccination and hygiene, diseases like these above or diphtheria, hepatitis, measles etc. aren’t serious danger any more. Now I’d like to talk about first aid. When you see an accident you may phone the ambulance (in our country it is 155) or you may accord first aid. If you are bleeding you must stop the bleeding, elevate the injury above the heart ad press with sterile compress. If you see a car accident, check if they are breathing, stop the bleeding, if there is any, don’t move with the victims unless it’s absolutely necessary, keep them warm, loosen any tight clothes and of course call the doctor. If you have any smaller wound you may dress it yourself, but if it is any larger wound you may go to the doctor. If I have any serious injury I’d rather go to a hospital or call a doctor.

First aid
try the pulse, try the breathing, put the head up, stick the tongue (the person can suffocate = zadusit se), stop bleeding by pressing special points, artificial respiration, make a plaster – two brunches and a line or scarf, when someone fainted – cold water, send him out, fresh air, sit down
I don’t know any alternative approaches. But I heard about acupuncture. It is medical sticking special needles to some parts of human body. It has an affect on our central nervous system and it helps to banish aches. It is initially Chinese medical method.
Your doctor can …
-  examine you
-  take your pulse
-  take your temperature, with a thermometer
-  listen to your heartbeat, with a stethoscope
-  test your reflexes, with a hammer
-  give you a check-up
-  take your blood pressure
-  give you some pills to take
-  give you some ointment to rub in to your back, to put on your back
-  give you a prescription
-  give you an injection (using a syringe)
-  refer you to a specialist
-  send you to have an X-ray
-  ask you to make another appointment
What you have to do, when you are ill?
Symptoms – You feel rotten, shivery, with an aching head, limbs, you are sweeting, you have lost your appetite, feel sick.
-  stay indoors, keep warm, and keep away from other people as much as possible
- have plenty of cool drinks – water, fruit drinks, milky drinks (about 2-3 liters a day)
-  if you feel shivery over 38°C or aches or pains, try taking aspirin every 4 hours during the day
-  rest in the bed if you can
-  try to have 3 light meals a day. But don’t force yourself to eat if you’ve lost your appetite

kidney ledvina
allergic to alergický na
allergy  alergie
dust, feathers, pollen prach
bad headache  migréna
Types of doctor
general practitioner všeobecný lékař
paediatrician pediatr
dentist zubař
dermatologist  kožní lékař
orthopaedist ortoped
gynaecologist  gynekolog
optician  optik
neurologist neurolog
Ear Neck Throat specialist  ušní, nosní, krční
surgeon  chirurg
psychologist  psycholog
vet zvěrolékař
pills pilulky
tablets  prášky
injection injekce
ointment  mast
solution  roztok
drops  kapky
gargle kloktadlo
antibiotics  antibiotika
scarlet fever  spála
polio, infantile paralysis dětská obrna
measles  spalničky
german measles zarděnky
mumps  příušnice
pox  neštovice
cancer  rakovina
encephalitis  zánět mozkových blan
diphteria  záškrt
hepatitis žloutenka
plague  mor
cholera, AIDS
tonsillitis  angína
influenza, flu chřipka
bronchitis zánět průdušek
pneuminia zápal plic
cold nachlazení, rýma
sore-throat  bolení v krku
otitis  zánět středního ucha
diarrhoea  průjem
sunstroke úpal, úžeh
temperature  teplota 
swallow  polykat
hoarse  ochraptělý
feel dizzy  mít závrať
faint mdloba
unconsciousness  bezvědomí
be exhausted  být vyčerpaný
rash  vyrážka
blister  puchýř
bruise modřina
black eye  monokl
sprain ankle vymknutý kotník
stretch muscle   natažený sval
hurt zranit
bleed krvácet
feel sick   cítit se špatně
be sick stonat
plaster  náplast, sádra
filling plomba
put in a filling zaplombovat
sting dát žihadlo
injure zranění
ailment onemocnění
prevention  prevence
symptom příznak
diagnosis diagnóza
cure vyléčit
treatment léčba
prescription  recept
to prescribe  předepsat
scratch škrábnutí
stab  bodnutí
vaccine vakcína
wound  zranění
disease choroba
contagious  nakažlivý
cough kašel
fever  horečka
hypochondriac hypochondr, -ický
malignant  zhoubný
tumour nádor
rebandage převaz
ambulance car sanitka
stretcher  nosítka
crutches berle
respiration dýchání
to X-ray  - rentgenovat
to bleed krvácet
bump  boule
fatal, lethal smrtelný
bandage  obvaz
disinfectant desinfekce
cotton wool  vata
pure spirit  čistý líh
acid  kyselina
tick  klíště
to transfer  přenášet
virus vir
nurse  zdravotní sestra
surgery vytřovna
hospital ward  pokoj v nemocnici
operating theatre  operační sál

More and more people of today seem to realize that a good health means a longer and a happier life. Health, together with love, is the most precious gift that people have.
How to prevent from illnesses

If we want to be fit, keep our mind and body in a perfect state and balance we should:

-  eat healthy food (healthy nutrition)
-  practice different kind of sports
-  try to avoid stress situations, alcohol, cigarettes and drugs
-  have an activity in the fresh air
-  have good sleeping habits (sufficient sleep)

Everybody in our country has the right to choose a doctor. Medical care is provided for our citizens from birth to death.

Children´s diseases
Soon after birth each child is vaccinated against such illnesses as:
-  tuberculosis (TB)  *  tetanus *  whooping cough (kiahne)
-  measles (osipky) *  polio  *  cold
-  chickenpox (smallpox) *  mumps *  diphtheria

Each school child is under medical supervision which means that he or she has to undergo a series of preventive medical and dental check ups where:
-  his body is examined
-  his teeth checked
-  his eyesight tested

When we grow out of our children´s diseases we don´t have to go to the doctor so often.

Common infections
Most often we suffer from  common infection like:
-  cold  *  headache *  toothache 
-  flu (influenza)  *  tonsilitis *  bronchitis 
We try to get over our illness easily by staying in bed, taking pills or drops, keeping warm, sweating, gargling and drinking herbal tea with honey or lemon. After a couple days we should feel better again. But if we still feel unwell, we finally decide to see our local doctor, who is called a General Practitioner (GP).

More serious illnesses
Sometimes the situation may be more serious and needs a special treatment in hospital, e.g.:
-  heart attack  *  pneumonia  *  jaundice
-  stroke *  concussion  *  blood poisoning
-  insomnia *  salmonellosis  *  appendicitis
-  breaking an arm or a leg

In the hospital the injured people are examined and X-rayed.Very serious cases are immediately operated on in the operating theatre (room). Doctors who work in hospitals we usually call specialists, e.g.
-  surgeons *  psychiatrists *  internists
-  oculists *  gynaecologist *  dermatologists
-  paediatrician *  ear and throat specialists 
-  orthopaedic specialists
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