Travelling & Tourism

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (12)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 849 slov
Počet zobrazení: 8 792
Tlačení: 409
Uložení: 421

Prípravy na cestu, dôvody, cieľ a význam cestovania
People nowadays travel a lot. We usually have to commute to work, to school or travel on business. It is mostly an unpleasant duty for us and routine. However many people travel for pleasure. They can choose different types of holiday and spend their time in different, interesting places. For this people travel means discovery, challenge and new experiences. There are many reasons why to travel. On our journey we can get to know new sights, meet new people, taste local meals, admire history and culture, natural beauty, historical monuments and also get to know language of the natives.
Before our visit we should organize some important things. Firstly we have to decide how to get to the destination. Than we should have valid passport and visa. We can also change money, but it is good not to carry a lot of cash around with us (take rather credit card). It is important to know local customs in order to know how to behave in foreign country. Moreover, we should take some other informations about country. For example about people who live there, about language(we should buy dictionary or phrase book if we don’t know the language). If we travel to exotic destination we should also go to doctor’s who advises to uz neccesary vaccinations. We should also take basic kit in case we become ill. Important is also to take out medical insurance. Before travel we can also ask neighbours to oversee our house or flat when we are away.
Dopravné prostriedky
Car is the most common mean of transport. Probably every second family owns a car. In a car there can be only few people. You don’t have to follow timetable, you aren’t limited by anything. You can stop whenever, wherever and for how long do you want. It is good for shopping, going to work, use in cases of emergencies. We have a privacy in our car. 
Disadvantages: you have to maintain the car and make sure there is enough petrol, oil…On roads there can be a traffic jam. You need a driving license if you want to drive a car legally. It is very expensive to buy car, petrol and you also have to pay insurance. It is one of the most dangerous kinds of transport. Driver is responsible for others. You need a garage and if you haven’t got one you have to park it in front of your house and it can be stolen.
Coaches - advantages: cheap, comfortable- you can watch TV, sleep, lean your seat, watch the countryside, get to know new people, it is quite fast.
Disadvantages: you have to wait on the board, you have to follow the timetable, you can’t stop when you want, you have to book a seat on a coach before the day of your departure, you have to sit on one place for a long time, you don’t have privacy, and you can feel sick.
Plane: advantages: fastest, most comfortable, convenient for long distances, the safest. On a plane there are served meals, drinks. Airport is good-organized, not crowded and not noisy.
Disadvantages: it is the most expensive mean of transport, you have to book a seat before your flight, you have to get other mean of transport to get to the airport, airports are only in big cities, your luggage can be lost, flight can be cancel because of weather etc. 
Boat: advantages: very expensive, comfortable, you can get food and drinks there, there are bars, casino, theatre, swimming pool... 
Disadvantages: ship can wreck (but all vehicals can crash), you can have seasickness, you have to book the ticket long before, it can be uncomfortable because of weather.
Trains: advantages: you can have your own compartment, it is fast, comfortable, there is a sleeping car, restaurant car, you can walk in corridor, stand by window. 
Disadvantages: quite expensive, dirty, noisy, depends on timetable, you don’t have privacy...
Individuálne a kolektívne cestovanie
We know individual and group (organised) holidays. If we choose individual, we have to arrange everything ourselves (book tickets, book accomodation, study everything necessary before departure).  But you can do everything what you want, you aren’t depend on other people. If we choose organised(package holiday), travel agency prepare our holiday instead of us. You have got special program, you can do a lot of trips with a tour guide a get more information about the town, sights, habits... These extra trips are usually paid individual.We can choose different types of accomodation. For example: hotel, hostel(cheaper, less comfortable), cottage, private apartment, camp... If we decide to stay at hotel, we can get different services : bed and breakfast, half board, full board or all inclusive which usually include 24hours full service. If we choose camp or cottage we can cook ourselves (self catering). Everything is up to people’s choice. Program on holidays is various and based on vishes everybody themselves. We should decide for sight seing, cultural evening, extra trips and other events, like discos, different types of sports or just relaxing on the beach.
We can travel : by land : by car, by train, by bus, by bicycle, by motorcycle, by underground (by subway/by tube), by foot 
by water: boat, ferry, ship, cargo 
by air : a plane /a jet plane/ , helicopter
Cestovanie kedysi a dnes, cestovanie v budúcnosti
Many years ago , people used to travel on horseback or in carriages pulled by horses, and it took them several weeks or days to reach their destination. Often their journeys were very dangerous and they, and they travel under threat of being attacked by outlaws, locals, gangs, pirates (during their sea voyages)... Their journeys were aimed at finding a job, visiting relatives, delivering a message but mostly, not for fun. At present, tourism is a part of the service or tertiary sector of a country’s economy. People nowadays travel mostly for pleasure. They can spend our holidays in different destinations. We can choose mountain region, holiday by the sea, interesting places, exotic and remote places and much more. Activities depend on destination, customer and also personality of traveller. It’s up to our wishes and dreams. We can choose highting or climbing in mountains, in winter also skiing and snowboarding. In summer we prefer relaxing by the sea, swimming, some bathing on the beach. For adrenalin enthusiasths there are many adrenalin activities like sphereing, river bugs, cliff jumping, rafting, scuba diving and others. People choose this activities because they feel free and it’s funny.Nowadays is also modern to give adventure holiday as a gift to someone. Today’s tourists are leaving the European style hotels for more authentic experiences, like horseback riding through the bush. Sitting by the fire at night after a typical dinner of meat stew, pumpkin leaves and wild spinach, they listen to the local people telling folk stories.

Future tourists will also want to do different things. While sun-and-sea tourism still dominates, overcrowding and time pressures mean that the standard two-week holiday is becoming less popular. Rather than spending two weeks on a beach, Americans and Europans are now taking shorter but more varied trips, causing the rapid development of adventure travel, ecotourism, cultural tours, spa holidays, cruises and sports vacations in ever more distant places.Western travellers choose more exotic, individualised experiences. However, in the future people may not be restricted to holidays on Earth.

Space Tourism is the term that's come to be used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. Many people find this idea futuristic. But over the past few years a growing volume of professional work has been done on the subject, and it's now clear that setting up commercial space tourism services is a realistic target for business today.Many people are prepared  to save up money to get the chance to visit space and stay in an orbital hotel. For them space is an extremely entertaining place to go to and it also represents the future of the human race. Hotels in orbit will offer the services you expect from a hotel - private rooms, meals, bars. But they'll also offer two unique experiences: stupendous views - of Earth and space - and the endless entertainment of living in zero-G - including sports and other activities that make use of this. And there are further possibilities such as space-walking.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism. Its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and forhuman rights. Generally, ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is intended to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. For these reasons, ecotourism often appeals to advocates of environmental and social responsibility.

Možnosti cestovania do zahraničia
Travelling abroad is today much more easier than it was in the past. People , who live in European union, do not need visas and even passports when they travel to EU countries, they only need their identity cards.However, there are countries outside the EU we still need visa to go. People usually travel abroad for holidays but very dilated specially among young people is travelling for study or for work. More and more secondary school and university students spend a year or a semester abroad. It is one of the greatest way how to learn something about country, language and culture. Very popular is also working abroad because there are better paid jobs and more opportunities. And also travelling abroad for holidays has many advantages and will be also great experience. Longerterm trends, including a rise in global wealth, improving transport technology, cheaper flights and the use of the Internet as a travel tool, will make it possible for more people around the world to travel than ever before.

Virtual tourism
A virtual tour is a simulation of an existing location, usually composed of a sequence of video images. They also may use other multimedia elements such as sound effects, music, narration, and text. Virtual tours can be especially useful for universities and in the real-estate industry, looking to attract prospective students and tenants/buyers, respectively, eliminating for the consumer the cost of travel to numerous individual locations. With the expansion of video on the internet, video-based virtual tours are growing in popularity. Virtual tours can also allow tourists to see and explore locations to assess whether they would like to visit a region, city or specific site prior to physically travelling there.  
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