Man and Nature

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 325 slov
Počet zobrazení: 9 880
Tlačení: 434
Uložení: 950

Man and Nature
1. Climate, Weather, The seasons of the year
Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface at a certain place on Earth. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. There are five types of climate. These categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. Each type of climate is designated by a capital letter. Tropical Moist Climates  are characterised by their large amount of rain and they all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius. Dry Climates with deficient precipitation during most of the year and huge daily temperature range. Humid Middle Latitude Climates have warm, dry summers and cool,wet winters. Continental Climates are found in the interior lands. Their seasonal temperatures are different and total precipitation is not very high. Cold Climates are located in the high latitudes over continental areas, like Greenland and the Antarctica.
Slovakia has a Continental Climate which is characteristic for the alternation of four distinct seasons. In the winter it snows and freezes and the wind is icy, but summers tend to be hot and humid. The average daily temperature in Slovakia is -1° to -2°C in January and 18 to 21 °C in July. In the mountains are usually cooler. Slovakia receives precipitation an average between 500 in the lowlands to 2000 mm in the mountains annually.
It is difficult to predict weather in Britain because of its location. The overall climate in England is called temperate maritime. This means that it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0ºC in winter and not much higher than 32ºC in summer. It also means that it is damp and is subject to frequent changes. July and August are normally the warmest month in England. Rain is fairly well distributed throughout the year, with late winter/spring (February to March) the driest period and autumn/winter (October to January) the wettest.

2. The Nature around us
Nature and environment create surrounding around us in which people, animals and plants exist.  Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Using  wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. However, it is necessary to think about rights of animals. Man´s relationship with animals has good but also bad aspects. On the one hand, animals can be useful for people with the handicaps; these people use to keep the guide dogs which help them in everyday’s life. Rescuers have search and rescue dogs useful in rescuing people in danger. Pets are needed for entertainment, for children who desire to have some dogs, cats, rabbits or hamsters. Elderly people breed pets for a joy, they don´t want to be alone. However, on the other hand, there are terrible aspects of man´s relationship with animals. In nowadays, people think about themselves and use animals for many kinds of scientific experiments, hunt animals only for recreation, utilize animal fur for clothes, they sell it and earn much money. Many animal species are endangered and close to extinction because man alters its natural habitats.
3. State of the environment
The Earth´s climate has been changing since the Earth was formed. The biggest threat to life on Earth comes from global warming. The CO₂ traps the heat from the sun and causes the Earth to get warmer. This is called greenhouse effect.  The problem has been made worse by deforestation, the process of clearing forests. Nowadays, they are climate changes all over the world. The oceans and seas are getting warmer and the polar ice caps are melting. This causes sea levels to rise, which threatens low coastal regions and islands. Furthermore, the weather is becoming more unpredictable, with severe storms or tornadoes, tsunamis and floods, or unexpected heat waves and droughts. Another effect of global warming is a rise in the number of endangered species. Many animals and plants could become extinct if their natural habitats are altered. According to scientists, the same trends will continue in the future. There is likely to be a trend increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms and drier soils. Most recent studies have suggested that the warming is likely to occur more rapidly over the land than the open seas.
4. Protecting the environment
Increased urbanisation and the spread of human infrastructures, over-exploitation of natural resources, pollution in all its forms, the introduction of exotic species into our ecosystems - these factors are all highly damaging for biodiversity. It is reason, why people should protect the nature. People has set up many organizations and their key objective is protecting endangered animals and plants. The Red List of Threatened Spieces created in 1963 gives precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk and provides a list of spieces that are in danger. The best known non-governmental organization is Greenpeace. They state its goal is to  ,, ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity." In every country are established protected areas. In Slovakia, there are 9 National Parks, the best known is TANAP. In Britain, state isn’t owner of these areas. 
Environmentalists point to the most serious ecological problems and try to give their warning the greatest publicity possible through the mass media. Concern for the environment should be a part of people’s lives. Therefore there is a great need for environmental education. Children of all ages should be taught about man´s relationship to nature. They should be educated to have a much better understanding of the fact that all around us create one ecosystem. The destruction of any part of this ecosystem can negatively influence the functioning of the whole system.
5. How the environment influence a man´s live
Agriculture is known for ages and has rich history. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.  Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production. On the other hand, there is organic food, which is less damaging because organic farms do not consume or release synthetic pesticides into the environment, are better than conventional farms at sustaining diverse ecosystems, use less energy and produce less waste. Some people use to buy organic food and live healthy, but many people are very comfortable, they are busy and have not any time to take care of their health. It causes many diseases as the obesity, diabetes or cancer. Man´s health depends on his lifestyle but people often neglect their health. People should eat more vegetable and fruit which content essential vitamins, eat low-fat or fat-free dairy, eat much more organic food and whole wheat bread and fiber. it is important to do some body exercises and sleep enough. Man should relax in a spa, in the nature or do some kinds of sport. Some people relax during manual work. For example, agrotourism is likely to be very popular. The concept of agrotourism is a direct expansion of ecotourism, which encourages visitors to experience agricultural life at first hand. Agrotourism is gathering strong support from small communities as rural people have realised the benefits of sustainable development brought about by similar forms of nature travel. Visitors have the opportunity to work in the fields alongside real farmers and wade knee-deep in the sea with fishermen hauling in their nets.
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