Science and technology

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 500 slov
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Tlačení: 416
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Science and technology
A, Život kedysi a dnes (výdobytky vedy a technikya životná úroveň, prístroje v domácnosti)
B,  Pozoruhodné objavy a vynálezy vedy a techniky
C, Veda a technika v službách človeka ( eketronika, informatika, jadrová fyzika...)

Science is systemized knowledge gained through experimentation, observation and study. There exist many fields of science- natural, social, environmental and so on. Many discoveries were made trough observation. Some discoveries lead to invention of objects , process and techniques.
The technology /as a product of science/ is the application of knowledge to achieve a practical result. Society depends on technology and technology exists thanks to the society. The invention of printing had a great effect on European society. It  contributed to expansion of learning and allowed for the  faster propagation of new ideas. This development paved the way for the Scientific revolution. Technological  development changes society. The industrial  revolution  , which started in the  18th century in England, brought a major technological change. The major  achievement was the invention of steam power by James Watt and steam locomotive invented by George Stephenson. Since then, technology has become a part of our everyday life.
Society has made enormous progress in transport, medicine, biology and information technology. We realise this when we compare how people travelled in 18th century and now.

In the past people travelled by horses or on foot. It cost no money but it was not very comfortable. It  wanted to improve travelling and made it more comfortable and faster. Because of this scientists thought up  and constructed the first train. It was made in England. Then was the first car, in the fact it was not very fast but man was satisfied. Due to the man feelings the scientist did not feel satisfaction. The progress in car industry was incredible. Later, planes were constructed. In the middle of 20th century people were able to leave the planet for the first time and explore the space.
Scientific discoveries took place in the field of  chemistry in the modern age. The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel  invented a safer way of using nitroglycerine in the production of dynamite. Dimitri Mendeleev  composed his periodic table of elements. The French biologist Louis Pasteur was able to link microorganisms with disease. He also devised on of the most important methods in preventive medicine. Paster invented the process known as pasteurisation , to help prevent the spread of disease through milk and other foods.  Perhaps, the most prominent theory in all of science has been the theory of evolution by natural selection put by Charles Darwin. Gregor  Mendel  provided the beginnings of the study of genetics. The invention which  the most influence  us  is  electricity. Thomas Alva Edison is inventor of electric light bulb, the phonograph, telephone transmitter. All appliances are based on electricity which we used at home – cooker robots, fridge , washing machine, TV, video, computer, radio ,….
 
Great progress has been made  in the field of medicine.  Science and technology has helped  ease the pain of certain types of diseases.  It has even cured and prevented some diseases that were considered incurable in the past. It helps prolong the life of people and makes the life of the handicapped easier. Nowadays, it is possible for doctors to help in surgeries that are taking place in another part of country. Moreover,  it is possible in vitro fertilization,  when the woman has a problem  with a fertilization . But on the other hand, it is the most debated issue from  moral considerations.
To compare the life in the  past and today, we can see the big difference in communication . During the  last decades, we have witnessed the biggest advance in information and communication technology, especially wireless technology. While in the past, people used for communication carrier- pigeon  , letters ant later telegraph  today, we are on higher level . We use telephones, cell phones, and internet. The amount of users of mobile phones and internet has rapidly increased. Mobile phones have become either a symbol of comfortable , quick communication or a fashion , mainly among young  people. The cell phones , the music player, the camera and the palm computer are being put together into one little gadged.
The internet is a system that allows computer users around the world to send the messages and information to each other. Computers :
 ·Let you access a lot of information communicate by  e-mail or using internet.
·can do some jobs very quickly
· make it possible to work from home
A lot of boring and complicated jobs can now be done by computers, machines and robots instead of people.  Some manufacturing processes and services are now fully automated. This may lead to high unemployment as more jobs are done by machines or computers.

D, Zneužitie vedy a techniky
 
Weapons, Violence
The development of technology has also bad side it is the danger of misusing of technology.
It hasn´t happened yet , but one day it is almost certain that the terrorist group will get the necessary materials and technology to use weapons of mass destruction. A nuclear, chemical and biological terrorist attack will almost certainly happen. People  are so worried of terrorists attacks because of this, that the victim of attack can become everybody. Terrorists  usually have chosen the place not person.
I would like to say something about two the most destructive weapons. The first is a nuclear weapon/bomb which is made from plutonium. It is really dangerous because of radiation, which after explosion influences the life on this place and health of people for many generations. The second powerful bomb is hydrogen. It is based on hydrogen fusion what is the process the same as the process in the sun. It creates high temperature and enormous explosion.
We also know  weapons which are used near everyday crimes like a pistol and others, which are habitual equipment for gangsters. Computer hacking involves some degree of infringement on the privacy  of others  and for decoding protecting systems of banks, firms or houses which the want to rob.
 
 Civilizations diseases
-  are diseases which are fast spread in population. They also can cause death.
-  Are caused by unhealthy food, genetic  and our lifestyle
-  They include : cancer, obesity, high blood pressure, AIDS  and also some epidemics (maybe from viruses which were created by people in laboratories)
 
Addiction on technology
The big addiction on technology we can see  especially on young people ( between 10-15 years). They are spending a lot of their free time playing  computer games, which are usually full of violence and shooting., also on PlayStation, or  watching TV. I consider it as waste of time.
I must admit that the biggest addiction  is on the Internet , chatting on social networks.It is really hard to deny that it is dangerous for young people, when they  chat with someone who they know just from the Facebook, ICQ or  Pokec.  The disadvantage is that we can´t be sure if the person is telling the truth about their personalities (sex, age, hobbies) . In my opinion we should chat with persons who we know or prefer contact face to face.
 
Consumer society
Nowadays, the development of technology is really fast. People are so greedy. They want to something what they has had, and it isn´t broken, but they want to a new model (the most modern model) of it . It is everything about fashion , especially among young people.
  I would like to point on the vicious- circle of debt. People don´t know to spare money , they rather spend them (also on something what they don´t need, which they can´t afford it) and also borrow money from bank on new  thinks like TVs, notebooks, computers, mobiles, stereo….It is vicious-circle because of that when they pay back money, they  borrow money again.
 
E, Človek a veda a technika v budúcnosti (robots, nahradenie učiteľa počítačom, deti a počítače, únik mozgov)
 
By 2050 robots will probably be able to think like humans. They will look after us at home like mechanical servants. But they will also carry out more complex tasks. For example, they will be able to work as doctors or teachers .
Others argue  that computers can only used in education for acquiring passive knowledge and for testing knowledge. However, many types of interactive software are developed nowadays and  many european univeristies have even started to offer online study programmes.
In my opinion , by 2500 scientists will think up the system –microchip, which will be inbuilt to our brain, and we will be just recorded the information on it. So it will be created new man-made inteligence of people – so wi will be similar like a robots.
Some people think that the fantasies of science- fiction films will come true. Humans won´t become extinct, but we will join together with advanced robots and make a new species that will live for ever.
 Children and computers
-  spend a lot of time
-  don´t help their parents
-  is not healthful for their psychic and physical condition
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