Society

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 687 slov
Počet zobrazení: 7 910
Tlačení: 347
Uložení: 486
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Man and Society
Society- involves whole population, way how people live together and also institutions they’ve developed. Living in a society requires following certain rules of behavior. We can compare American and British society.

American society

· People should be free on making decisions and choices
· Individuals will take responsibility for themselves, and do not rely on society
· Class or social status depends on a personal achievements, not on family background
· Americans are religious people, family – conscious, what seems to be stereotype, which doesn’t really reflect the real situation
· Multicultural society – cultural melting pot

U.K.

· Since 1930 modern British society has become more selfish, individualistic
· Social classes: Royal family, Cords (=bishops, archbishops), aristocracy,…army.
· Money, education and employment take important role in their society, they’re much more important than family 
· The view of women and men has changed – new trends in society has lead to equality among men and women
· It’s changed the status of men and women at work, home, public
· Nowadays, older generation is less respected than they deserve and they’re becoming a further for their families    
 
A, morálka – správanie sa mladých a starších ľudí, etická výchova v rodine a škole

- Extremely important to show children what is right and what is wrong from an early age.
- Children and young people observe the moral rules unconsciously and behave according to what they see. They pick the up from their parents, teachers and friends. Family is where behaviour is formed. Small thing such us talking to people with respect, listening to them, showing empathy, praising the other for their achievements, should be common in every family. Their absence leads to raising ill-mannered children. Parents should also be careful and practice what they preach.
- Rules of behaviour are taught at school, too. Children can attend schools either the classes of religion or ethics. Both of them try to teach children and young people how to differentiate between good and evil, between what is moral and what is immoral.
- The loss of manners- serious problem in modern societies. Most children are educated by media. The cartoons characters, movies and games – rude violent. Idols from reality shows influence the values of young people.
- The acquired negative patterns of behaviour in childhood are hardly changed later in adulthood.
- The huge difference between how children are raised nowadays and how our parents and grandparents were raised lead to big generation gap.

 
B, spoločenská etiketa – stretnutia, pozdravy, blahoželania, návštevy – dôvody, čas, témy rozhovorov, pohostenie

- Ethics – study of moral rules, norms and manners. It analyses what is right and what is wrong. Etiquette (protocol) describes formal rules or traditions of behaviour in certain society and culture.
- It prescribes – the way in which people communicate, show their respect for other people, how to greet people with warmth, offer hospitality to guests, wear clothing appropriate for certain occasions, contribute the conversations without dominating them, listen to speakers, offer a chair, help those who need assistance, eat neatly and quietly, avoid disturbing others (music, noise), arrive on time when expected and respond to invitations promptly.
- The exact rules connected with hosting guests, dining, clothing etc. are specific for different cultures.
- However, there are rules which are universal all around – be polite, respect local customs and people, say magic words: Thank you, Please, Sorry, show interest in other culture, ask questions, listen to answers.
- Impolite – go to someone’s house without arranging it first, to ask for more unless your host offers it
- Polite – arrive on time (not too early in case your host is not ready), give him or her a small present.
- Food etiquette – tea should be poured from a teapot after a minute or two it has been made. If there are several pieces of cutlery use on the outside first. Eat soup quietly, without lifting the bowl off the table.

C, normy a ich porušovanie – morálka a zákon, nedorozumenie a konflikt
Society is ruled by laws. The man who breaks law must be punished.

- Moral – behaviour, our manners, etiquette. It is unwritten law of behave in different situations. It includes etiquette – greeting, meeting, took manners, public behaviour and privacy behaviour
- Laws – general laws and rules accepted by nation and the whole population. Human rights are accepted all over the world – right for living, freedom, health care, personal development, education, freedom of speech, work.

- Rules – are created by the parliament – it’s the supreme legislative law of country. The members of parliament make suggestions of the laws and then vote for it – the rule must be accepted by the majority of members of parliament.
- Breaking some rights and rules leads to conflict like feuds, arguments, rows, battle, clash, friction, fight, quarrels, warfare, war, violence (domestic, bullying, crime – burglary, murder, mugging, shoplifting, pocket lifting, robbery, smuggling, kidnapping, blackmailing, raping, hijacking, terrorism, vandalism, hooliganism, trafficking, drug dealing, arson, slottering, genocide)
- Solving conflicts: 1. be aggressive – it is very common, but not very suitable for resolving the conflict, because it worses the situation and it becomes violent. It’s the most common way but the worst solution.

2. Ignoring – person says nothing which is not very effective. It bottles up both sided feeling. It can be very negative in long term.
3. Mediation – someone from outside solve the conflict=mediator. It’s useful at serious conflicts. It’s better to solve the problems yourselves.
4. Negotiation – the best way of solving conflicts. You should find out what the other person wants. You should try to explain clearly what you want.

- People should propose solutions which everybody argues with and make suggestions. The solving of conflicts should be constructive. You should speak clearly, firmly and be aware of your body language. You should never shout.

D, prejavy záujmu a pomoci spoluobčanom v núdzi, sponzorstvo a sponzori (dôvody a podoby)

- Sponsorship – to sponsor something is to support an event, activity, person, organization financially or through the provision of products or services. A sponsor is the individual or group.
- Kind of sponsorships: A. child sponsorship – allows an individual typically in a developed country to sponsor or fund a child in developing country. Financially supporting the education, health or security of the sponsored child.  B. commercial – cash or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property.
-  Allowance= an amount of money set aside for a designed purpose.
- State Support – various forms, for those without jobs (jobseekers’), allowance and income support depending on their circumstances. People can apply for housing Benefit, help with childcare, illness, disability and others.
- Income Support: Maternity pay- if you work or have a baby, whether you work full or part-time job, you have the right to receive Statutory Maternity. Pay as long as you meet certain conditions. You must have been employed for at least 26 weeks. Earn an average of at least 95£ a week. Retirement pension – a pension is an arrangement to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment. A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee referred to as employer pension. Created funds for citizens to provide income when they retire. This require payments throughout the citizen’s working life. Disability pensions – provide for members in the event they suffer a disability. This may take the form of early entry into retirement plan for a disabled member below the normal retirement age. Widow’s pension – is payable to childless widows when their husband died, also is payable to widows with children when their widow mother’s allowance ends. Housing benefit – if you are on a low income and need financial help to pay all or part of your rent, you may be able to get Housing Benefit. If you pay rent and your income and capital are below a certain level. Child Benefit – tax-free payment that you can claim for your child paid every 4 weeks, or weekly (in some cases). Who can get this? Child under 16, child over 16 and in education or training qualifies, to 26 if he or she is a student,… Unemployment benefit – payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people. For people of working age who are out of work or work less than 16 hours a week. You must: be looking for full time work, 18 years old and over, have been working for one company 3 years without interruption. It’s for 6 months. Social fund – can give amount of money to people on low incomes. The amount is strictly limited. Non-financial Support – Jobcentres help people to look for work, deal with living on a low income or start a business, help with illness, accidents caused by work.
- Social Security – refers to social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, and others. Social Insurance, Income Maintenance, Social Protection.
- Moral Support – it is a way of giving support to a person without making any contributions beyond the emotional or psychological value of the encouragement.
- Charity – means the giving of help to those in need who are not related to giver.

•  Organization is a type of non-profit organization, it’s the act of giving money, goods or time to unfortunate, directly or by means of charitable trust
•  It is gave to: children, developing countries, sick people, disabled people.
-  There are some public organizations such as Hodina deťom and so on. Also volunteers with collecting boxes in the streets asking for money.
 
E, vplyv spoločnosti na rodinu
- Everybody has to adapt to his surrounding.
- Families: -usually 2 parents+ 2 children as it is wide spread in their town/city  - parents, workmates and friends influence their children’s growing up - advertisements, media all have effects on families  - everybody has some duties, must behave respectably - there are some manners, rules are set so we have to act appropriately
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