Communication and its forms

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec sp-prace (11)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Communication and its forms

Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback using a channel.

A.  TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. There are variety of types of communication.
 
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:
1.Verbal Communication
2.Nonverbal Communication

1.Verbal Communication

Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS(keep it short and simple).

When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. Usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.
Verbal Communication is further divided into:
1.Oral Communication
2.Written Communication

Oral Communication

In oral communication, spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.

WrittenCommunication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via e-mail, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.

Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.

2. Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker.

Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflects the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affect the effectiveness of message.

B
. COMMUNICATION IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
People speak and respond variously in various situations. Between our friends or schoolmates, when we are in ordinary situation and when we feel relaxed, we can use informal communication. On the other hand, the formal communication is necessary for serious or official situations, for example when you apply for a job, or write a letter to some company. It is very important to distinguish the situations, because our incorrect manners and expressions could get us into embarrassed moments. It is also serious to learn symbolic gestures and traditions of other nations before visiting them. One meaning can be signalled by diverse actions: in Europe if you tap your forefinger against your temple, it means a sign of stupidity but in Arabic countries you touch the lower eyelid with the tip of the foreginger. Or, in our country it is impolite to belch loudly after eating but in Japan you convey by belching that the meal was really tasty.

C.  MODERN COMMUNICATION
The way we communicate has radically changed over the ages. For a long time we relied only on sending letters, nowadays also referred to as "snail mail". Then man managed to invent the telegraph and later on the telephone, radio and television. These inventions made communication faster, but these improvements can be considered negligible in comparison to those that we have achieved in the past few years.
Today we have lot of possibilities how we can communicate, for example mobile phone, the Internet (e-mail), social networking (Skype, MySpace, Facebook) and so. The mobile phone has become ubiquitous device, replacing your telephone, watch, calendar, address book, camera, radio and gradually even your wallet. In case you think you might be disturbing someone with your phone call, you might choose to send a short text message. But not every message can fit into 160 characters. In such a case, everyone turns to the pillar of modern communication: e-mail. E-mail has become the standard for everyone nowadays, from families to large multinational businesses. Since e-mail makes communication over large distances so simple, it has spurred business innovations such as outsourcing. The most recent from of communication that has evolved is so-called social networking. This phrase describes the functionality of sites such as MySpace, Facebook or Bebo, which let users join networks, such as workplace or school networks, to interact with other people. They allow you to add people to your friends list and interact with them by sending short messages, sharing photos or videos, sending virtual gifts or simply by informing all your friends what you're up to.
D.  THE LANGUAGE-COMMUNICATION TOOL
A language is a system of symbols for encoding and decoding information. There are about 6500 languages worldwide. Some live, die, move from place to place and change with time. Any language that ceases to change or develop is categorized as a dead language. On contrary, any language that is in a continuous state of change is known as a living language or modern language. The science of studying languages is called linguistics. The language has become the most important tool used for communication without which no society is able to survive.
When it comes to comparing and assessing the languages, three ways can be used: - the first deals with the number of native speakers (mother tongue) - the second method is much more complicated - we assess the languages on the grounds of the number of speakers, people who are able to express themselves in other foreign language - the last method deals with the languages in use on the Worldwide Web

If someone wants to study language in order to be understood by the most people possible, Mandarin Chinese in recommended. It's because Chine is the most populated country in the world and the number of people whose mother tongue is Chinese is about 870 mil. Hindi and Spanish language follow. However, you won't find these languages useful in case of travelling. On contrary, English which is the mother tongue of almost 340 mil. people is commonly used as a lingua franca. A lingua franca is a hybrid used for communication between 2 or more groups with different native languages. It is estimated that half of the world population is able to communicate in English properly. English is the official language of 52 countries, Great Britain and USA included. What's more, it is used within each of the five continents and it's also the most dominating language of the Internet. In addition, it influences the vocabulary of other languages, mainly in the field of terminology. These words are referred to neologisms. Therefore, you are sure to find some English word loans/borrowings in other languages. The ability of speaking English is required in many professions. The same comes with the international communication. I've already mentioned, studying languages is extremely important for communication with other people. Some people think that communication of people with different mother tongues could be solved by an artificial language. The researchers are working on the development of an electronic artificial language. An artificial language is manmade, easy to write and easy to read and, more important, it has no nationality. It doesn't originate naturally as, for example, English, Chinese or Spanish did. An example of the artificial language is Esperanto. Unfortunately, only about five million people worldwide speak it. Esperanto is, however, good for other different reasons.

E. A STANDARD, FORMAL, INFORMAL LANGUAGE, ...
Language is used in a wide range of situations. Most people speak and write in different ways on different occasions. In some languages, for example, there are very complicated rules about how to speak to older or more important people. English does not have a system if this kind. However, there are some words and structures which are mostly used in formal situations-that is to say, situations when people are careful about how they express themselves, like report writing, business meetings, conferences or polite conversations with strangers. And some words and structures are mostly used in informal situations-for example conversations with friends, or letter to one's family. Writing is more often formal, and speech is more often informal, but informal writing and formal speech are used when the situation makes them necessary. Most words and expressions are neither formal nor informal, but neutral-English speakers do not have to know two ways of saying everything. Formal language is of course used when one wishes to be polite-to show respect to important people or strangers. Requests and questions can be made more polite by making them less direct. What's more, the formality of the language is also used when we want to put ourselves at a distance. On contrary, the informal language is used to show friendliness, equality, feeling of closeness, solidarity. The informal language shouldn't be used just to sound fluent or clever.
Slang is very informal kind of vocabulary, used mostly in speech by people who know each other well. Many slang expressions are used by members of particular social and professional groups, and nearly all slang is used between people who know each other well or share the same social background. So it's usually a mistake for "outsiders" (including foreigners) to try deliberately to use slang. This can give the impression that they are claiming membership of a group that they do not belong to. There is also the danger that the slang may be out of date-when slang gets into books, it is often already dead. It is best to wait until one is really becoming accepted as part of a community, one will then start using their slang naturally and correctly along with the rest of their language.
No language stands still. New words and expressions are always being created, usually because something new is invented or sometimes just for fun. No government committee decides whether a new word is acceptable or not. If it is used frequently and in a variety of contexts, it will find its way into dictionary.
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