Kniha – priateľ človeka

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: sp-prace (12)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 282 slov
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Tlačení: 292
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Kniha – priateľ človeka
a) knihy -výber, čítanie
If you ask people about their favourite leisure time activity, the answer you’ll get quite often is reading books. People have often liked books. After Guttenberg made printed books available to almost everyone, people fell in love with books. Each year, millions of books are written, sold, read and even presented as gifts on occasions such as birthdays and Christmas.
Literature can be divided into 2 categories: non-fiction books and fiction books. Non-fiction books are usually for information. There are textbooks (educational books containing information and ideas about some subject), dictionaries (books that tell us the meaning of words), encyclopaedias (large books or a set of books containing facts about different subjects in alphabetical order), biographies, autobiographies and memoirs, self-help books, travel/history/art books or cookery books.
Fiction is about imaginary people or events. There are two types of fiction books: poetry and prose. People who are keen on poetry can read poems by famous poets in books of poetry. Those who prefer prose can choose to read tales, short stories, novellas, romances crime/spy novels, mysteries, science fiction, western, thrillers or historical novels.
b) obľúbený autor a žánre
c) prečítané dielo spisovateľa krajiny, ktorej jazyk sa učím (život a dielo spisovateľa)
William Shakespeare
He is considered to be the greatest of all dramatists all over the world. He was born in Stratford-upon Avon in 1564. He was the youngest son; he had only one sister and one brother. William attended the local grammar school. At the age of 18 he married Ann Hathaway who was seven years older than himself. Some years after he left Stratford and went to London. He started his career of playwright with historical plays from national and antique history. His plays were first published in 1623. He presented the themes of love, friendship, human harmony and joy of life. His greatest period was between 1600 – 1607 during which he wrote his most remarkable tragedies Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth and so on. Shakespeare often used magic, mythology and folklore elements in his romantic dramas. He wrote 37 plays an beautiful sonnets.  In 1611 Shakespeare returned to Stratford to live with his daughter an son-in-law. He died on the same day as he was born on 23rd April 1616. The legend says that he died after a louder and noisier birthday celebration with his friends. He was buried at the local Trinity Church.
Romeo and Juliet is about the unhappy love and death of Romeo and Juliet, the only children of two powerful Houses of Verona – the House of Montague and the House of Capulet. These Houses hate each other and Romeo Montague meets Juliet on the ball. He fell in love with her without the knows that she is Capulet. They love each other very much and ask Friar Laurence to marry them. Their love and marriage were secret and by an unfortunate coincidence Romeo kills Tybalt who is Juliet’s cousin. Prince of Verona sends Romeo to the exile outside Verona and young Juliet is forced to get married to a young nobleman called Paris. She asks Friar Laurence for help again and he gives her magic drops after which she falls asleep for several hours and looks as if she was dead. Romeo learns about Juliet’s death in Mantua and hurries to the Capulet’s Monument in a churchyard. He does not know anything about the trick and kills himself. Soon after that Juliet wakes up and when she sees Romeo dead, she kills herself too. Both Montague and Capulet Houses reconciliate only after the death of their beloved children.
d) nositelia Nobelovej ceny za literatúru a ich diela 
Every year, the Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded to the writer whose work of fiction is considered to be a unique literary achievement There are many writers who are Nobel Prize winners, W. Faulkner, J. Steinbeck or E. Hemingway just to mention some of them. The very first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 1901 to the French poet and philosopher Sully Prudhomme, who in his poetry showed the "rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect". Over the years, the Nobel Prize in Literature has distinguished the works of authors from many different languages and cultural backgrounds. The Literature Prize has been awarded to unknown masters as well as authors acclaimed worldwide.
The Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded by the Swedish Academy, Stockholm, Sweden.
12 women have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) was the first woman to be awarded in 1909. Selma Lagerlöf was awarded five years before she was elected to the Swedish Academy, the Nobel Prize awarding institution responsible for selecting Nobel Laureates in Literature.
1909 - Selma Lagerlöf, 1926 - Grazia Deledda, 1928 - Sigrid Undset, 1938 - Pearl Buck, 1945 - Gabriela Mistral, 1966 - Nelly Sachs, 1991 - Nadine Gordimer, 1993 - Toni Morrison, 1996 - Wislawa Szymborska, 2004 - Elfriede Jelinek, 2007 - Doris Lessing, 2009 - Herta Müller
e) kríza v čítaní beletrie (príčiny, kupovanie kníh, služby knižníc, inštitútov)
People whose hobby is reading can buy books in a bookshop or borrow books from a library. Libraries store books, magazines and newspapers and you may be sure you´ll be able to find almost any book you need there. Some libraries are free of charge, but most of them charge a small fee for yearly membership or for each book borrowed. If you want to borrow books from a library, you should get a library card. There are several ways to choose a book to read. You can ask a librarian or a friend who is keen on reading to recommend a good book or you could check the book reviews in your local newspaper.
People do not buy many books. There are two main reasons for this. The first one is that books are getting more and more expensive and people cannot afford to buy many of them. This also leads to illegal photocopying, mainly among students who often copy textbooks. Slovak libraries lack finances to be able to provide better services and wider range of books to readers. The second reason why people in Slovakia do not buy many books is that they do not read so much anymore. People do not look for the information in books as much as they used to in the past. They need to save as much time as possible. Therefore, they prefer to look up the information on the Internet. Instead of reading a good fiction they watch films. Reading a book takes days or weeks, watching a film just one or two hours. People do not need to concentrate so much; they do not need to imagine things. Everything is ready for them on the screen. Moreover, teenagers prefer the interactive virtual reality of computer games. They participate in the game, take action, feel what the heroes feel. Adults read more and more magazines because it take less time and concentration than reading a book. Children and young people like to read comic books because there are more pictures than text and the story is usually adventurous and dynamic. In Slovakia we do not have a tradition of comic books. Belgium, France and England are countries where comic books are very popular. Some people think that the book will die out one day, but I think books are irreplaceable and it’s opportunity to learn something new. They improve vocabulary, communication skills, amuse us, help us to express ourselves, we can read for a pleasure or because our pleasure. It´s a hobby for many people and a part of their everyday life.
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