Sports

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123 (26)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 13.09.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Sports
 
Pictures
- Do these sports have anything in common? Which of them have you done? Would you like to try any of the others?
- Compare the sports in the pictures. Discuss both the similarities and the differences. Consider the following: when, where, how many people play/do these sports, etc.
- Compare the advantages and disadvantages of doing these sports. Which do you prefer? Why? Why not?
- Describe the activities, compare them and state what purpose these various activities have /sport, competition, adventure, excitement,…/
- Which of these sports would you like to try if you had an opportunity? Are there any sports that you dislike?  Compare the characteristics of sportsmen in both pictures.
- Describe the following pictures. What sports do these people do and how can we divide these sports? Which of these sports is your most/least favourite?

Discussion
1.What are the benefits of doing exercise or playing sports?
2.Why is sport a good way to relaxation?
3.Why do people do sports?
4.How do we divide sports?
5.What is the difference between sports and games?
6.What is the difference between amateurs and professional sportsmen?
7.Would you like to be a professional sportsman or sportswoman?
8.Which sport or game do you go in for? How do you practise it?
9.What games do you play in your free time? Why? Give reasons.
10.  What sports would you like to try if you had an opportunity? Are there any sports that you dislike?
11.  What sports do you do in each season of the year?
12.  Which do you like better: team sports or individual sports?
13.  Describe your attitude to sports and games from your childhood up to the present. /What sports did you begin with, which of them do you do now, how long, what sports and games are you good at, what sports and games you do during the seasons, what sports and games would you like to take up if you had more free time, what sports and games you watch on television?/
14.  Which sport are you interested in now? Why? /Describe what kind of sport it is, what the aim of the game or sport is, how the people playing are called, what equipment you need/
15.  What are the qualities of a sportsman?
16.  What is important in team sports?
17.  What are the pros and cons of doing sports professionally?
18.  How does a game help develop teamwork?
19.  What are the most famous sports events?
20.  What do you know about the Olympic Games? 
21.  The Olympic Games require a lot of investment. Do you think it’s worth it?
22.  Who are hooligans? Is hooliganism a serious problem?
23.  What do you think of the behaviour of sports fans, especially when there is violence or injury? How can hooliganism among sports fans be prevented?
24.  How do you celebrate our national teams’ successes?
25.  Should sport carry a health warning? Explain.
26.  Would you like to try any extreme sport? Which one? Why? Why not?
27.  Do you think that extreme sports should be banned? Why? Why not?
28.  What are some negatives in sports?
29.  What makes sportsmen take drugs?
30.  What role does money play in sports?
31.  Do you think each participant should be tested for drugs at an international sports event?
32.  What is your opinion on huge sponsorship deals? Do you think advertisement should play such a big role in sport? 
33.  Would you take a bribe if you were a football referee?
34.  Do you think that the salaries of professional sportsmen are disproportional compared to how other professions are paid?
35.  Express your opinion on money and advertisement in sports.
36.  Why shouldn’t doping be allowed in sports?

Role-plays and simulations

- Invite your friend to a sports event. Include the following information: the event itself /sport, team, kind of event/, date, time and place, price of tickets, when and where you will meet. /Role-play/

2. You would like to try bungee-jumping. Your father thinks it is too dangerous for you. Try to persuade him why it is important for you. /Role-play/
 
- Your partner wants your child to become a professional tennis player. You are strictly against. What are your arguments to convince your partner to choose a more suitable job for your child? Think about his/her possible arguments. /Role-play/

4. You are ill, but next day you have to go skiing with your friends. You want to go but your parents do not agree. Discuss the problem. /Role-play/
 
- Tell your friend about what a horrible skiing holiday you have just had. Mention at least five things that went wrong or that you didn’t like. /Role-play/

- Choose a team sport that you can play and make a presentation about it. Use the following questions to help you. /What sport are you going to speak about? Is is popular in your country? How long is a match? What are the basic rules? What clothes/equipment do you need? How many people are there in a team? How long have you been playing it? Which team is the current national champion? Which country is the current world champion? Is this sport often shown on TV? /Role-play/

- You and your partner have decided to take up a sport together. Look at the following list and discuss which sport would be the most suitable for both of you. Talk about the following aspects: what you need to start the sport, where you could practise/play, how often/regularly you would like to do it, whether you would join a club or a team. /Role-play/

- Your friend is a big football fan. He spends much of his free time playing or watching it. He wants you to go to the stadium with him. You don’t like the idea, because you think it’s dangerous and you have being in noisy surroundings. Try to persuade him it’s better to watch the live broadcast on TV. /Role-play/

- You work for your school magazine and want to interview a young athlete for the sports page. Your schoolmate is a junior swimming champion. Make up six questions you would like to ask him/her, do the interview and then report back to your group about what you found out. /Role-play/

Šport
- druhy športu /kolektívne, individuálne, letné, zimné, atraktívne športy, rekreačný a profesionálny šport/
- šport, ktorý ma zaujíma / aktívne, pasívne/, dôvody
- význam športu pre rozvoj osobnosti /fyzické a duševné zdravie, vôľové vlastnosti, charakter/
- významné športové podujatia, súťaže, olympijské hry
- negatívne javy v športe /sláva, peniaze, doping/

A.
Sports and games are one of the most popular leisure time activities. This is mainly due to the fact that they help one to keep fit both physically and mentally, to get rid of stress or to relax in an active way. Such a form of relaxation as sports is refreshing, can help take off some weight, and makes use of one’s skills and strength. Last but not least, during sports events one can meet a lot of new people and see how it feels to be a winner or a loser.
Sports and games of all kinds are great favourites, especially with young people.  Many of them practise some sport themselves, but there is an overwhelming majority of the so-called fans. They take no active part in sports themselves, they encourage and support their favourite team or sportsmen. Some  sportsmen go in for sports  just in their free time  - they are amateurs  or part time sportsmen /they  do  not  get  paid/,  others are  professionals  or  full  time  sportsmen, i.e. they make their living this way.
First, we have to differentiate between sport and game. Sport is a bodily exercise of one person done for pleasure & good health. On the other hand, game is an organized play with rules that tell you what to do. Games are those sports in which at least two players are involved.
Sporting activities can be roughly divided into: winter and summer, outdoor and indoor, traditional and extreme, individual and collective /sports and games/
Winter sports:  In winter sportsmen go in for winter sports, such as skiing, skating, snow-boarding, sledging and tobogganing. Skiers can practise  slalom race, giant slalom, downhill race  or  ski  jumps  in  ski  resorts  where  there  are good snow conditions. Skating includes figure skating and speed skating which are practised on skating-rinks.
Summer sports:
-  athletics
hard /weight lifting, wrestling, boxing/
light  /track  and  field  events  -  running, jumping, throwing the discus, throwing  the hammer,  the  shot put, throwing  the  javelin,  pentathlon,  decathlon, Marathon race, hurdle race, relay race/
-  water sports - Swimming is a typical summer sport but it is possible to practise it all the year round in indoor pools. Swimming includes breaststroke, backstroke, crawl and butterfly.  Other water sports are rowing, sailing, diving, water skiing, windsurfing, fishing, wild rafting, water-rafting, yachting.
-  hiking, mountaineering
Some sports cannot be called typical winter or summer sports since they can be performed all the year round.
Indoor sports : Gymnastics is  a typical  indoor sport  which  includes  apparatus  training on  uneven bars,  horizontal bar, balance beam,  mat,  spring-board  or  rings. A typical indoor game is bowling in which you roll a ball towards a group of wooden objects trying to knock down as many of them as you can. Other popular indoor games are playing darts in which you throw an arrow at a round board with numbers on it or snooker or billiards in which you try to hit different coloured balls into pockets at the edges of a table using a long stick.
Outdoor sports: Athletics,  a  typical outdoor sport, includes track  and field events /the Marathon race,  long-distance  run, cross-country  run, relay race/ and sprinting  events /a  hundred-metre  sprint, hurdle-race/.
Jumping /high  jump, long jump,  triple jump, pole  jump/ and throwing  /hammer, discus, javelin,  shot put/  are  also athletic sports.
Indoor sports can  be practised all the year round  but  many  of  outdoor  sports  such  as cycling race,  mountaineering  and  most  of  aquatic  sports  like  sailing, yachting,  regatta,  water-skiing, diving, wind-surfing, wave-gliding and others, depend  on weather and therefore can be  practised mostly  in summer.
Traditional sports
Extreme sports – Extreme sports have become popular in the last 10 years. More and more people look for excitement, danger and speed and all of them they can find in extreme sports. One of the most popular extreme sports is bungee jumping. You jump off a bridge and you fall and fall, and then, just before you hit the ground or water, an elastic rope pulls you back. Other extreme sports appear just as crazy. In sky surfing you jump out of an aeroplane and you use a board to surf the air, doing gymnastics in the mid-air. Another popular winter extreme sport is snowboarding, which has all the excitement of surfing but on snow and is even more dangerous than skiing. Probably the most dangerous of all new winter sports is snow rafting. You sit in a rubber boat and sail down a mountain at great speed and you can’t control the boat. Water sports have always been fun. In white-water rafting you sit in a small inflatable raft and go down a river at great speed. Then there is ice diving. You put on diving equipment and dive under a frozen lake.
Individual sports
Collective games
The most popular games are football, rugby, hockey, tennis, golf, cricket, basketball, volleyball, handball and many others.  The British are sport-loving people. Every Englishman, Scotsman, Irishman and Welshman is said to be interested in at least one sport or game.  Some of the games  such as  football, rugby, golf, tennis  originated in Britain and  spread  all  over  the  world  from  there. 
Cricket is considered to be the most typically English. This game has its roots in England and has never become popular beyond the British Commonwealth. It is difficult game for foreigners to understand. The British love this typical summer game. 
The most popular game is football or soccer, as the British call it.  Football in Britain is a winter game. All the British football fans celebrated the 130th anniversary of football in 1993. The Cup Final is the most important football match of the year in England. It is played at Wembley Stadium near London, which has the seats for 100.000 spectators.
Rugby is an old game. It started in the 18th century at Rugby School, the famous English Public School.  Rugby is played with an  oval ball, and hands and feet can be used. 
Besides team games, such as football and rugby, the popular individual game is tennis.  Its popularity has increased very much recently. Tennis can be played on a grass court or a hard court.  The best champions or the world play at Wimbledon every year. The championships are watched by thousand of spectators and TV viewers all over the world.
Golf, which comes from Scotland, is a very popular game with the people of all ages. Britain has many beautiful golf-courses. Golf is played by two, three or more persons. The player tries to hit the ball with a club into each hole in as few strokes as possible.  The winner is the player who can go round the golf-course in the lowest number of strokes.
The Americans also pay much attention to sports and games. The most popular games are basketball, baseball, tennis, boxing, wrestling and ice hockey. There is an increasing interest in football, too.
Baseball was invented  in the middle of the  18th century and  since  that  time  the  rules  of  this game remained nearly unchanged. Baseball is played at large stadiums. There is no  time  limit, and  may be  it  is  one of  the reasons  of its  popularity. High schools and colleges have their own baseball teams.  Most of the cities have at least one professional baseball team.
Tennis and squash are leading summer sports in the U.S.A. Squash is a game for two or four players played in  a four-walled court  with a special  racket and a  soft ball.
There is also  a great number of specific  water sports, such  as  yachting, wind-surfing,  wave-gliding which  are loved by many young people.
 
B.
¨ What is your favourite sport and how do you practise it? – I like to play football…., I play with my friends at school/after school/ at weekends….., I play in a team and we participate in various competitions. We have training twice a week.
¨ What sports do you do in each season of the year? – In spring I enjoy….., Over the summer I do ……, In the autumn months I……, During winter I …….,
¨ What sports would you like to try if you had the opportunity? Are there any sports that you dislike? – I would like to try golf/rock climbing because……, I don‘t like boxing/archery because….
¨ Which do you like better: team sports or individual sports? – I like team sports such as…., My preference is for individual sports like …….
¨ Describe your attitude to sports and games from your childhood up to the present. /What sports did you begin with, which of them do you do now, how long, what sports and games are you good at, what sports and games you do during the seasons, what sports and games would you like to take up if you had more free time, what sports and games you watch on television?/
¨ Which sport are you interested in now? Why? /Describe what kind of sport it is, what the aim of the game or sport is, how the people playing are called, what equipment you need/
Football/soccer/
Football seems to be the most favourite game. Football, in the USA called soccer, was born in England where the rules were established in the 19th century. Football is a team sport in which both teams attempt to score a goal by kicking or heading the ball into the opposite team’s net. The football field surface is grass. Each team consists of 11 players. One of them, the goalkeeper, defends the goal of its own team and for this purpose he is allowed to use hands.  The rest of the team is forbidden to use hands. Usually three or four players of the team defend the goal as well and we call them defenders. In the middle of the football pitch the most flexible players called mid-fielders play. They can move all around the field to help the defenders and also the strikers. Strikers are the front men and their main job is to force the goal. Football has certain rules, which are clearly defined. The less popular but very important authorities on the pitch are the referees. At the moment all the football matches are governed by four referees. There is a main referee who uses a whistle, two referees on the lines /so called linesmen who have flags/ and an assistant referee. The main referee’s equipment is a yellow card, a red card, a whistle and a stopwatch. The linesmen have a flag from lightweight brightly coloured fabric. The players’ equipment covers team shirts, team shorts, skin guards under the long socks and football boots. Professional  footballers, for  example, need to develop  particular skills, like passing the ball  and  tackling,  but  they  also  need  to improve their stamina  and  general  fitness.  They train most days. This usually involves running round the pitch and doing lots of exercise.
Ice Hockey
Ice hockey is the most popular game in our country due to the success of Slovak ice hockey players world-wide. Ice hockey originally came from Canada, where garbage men played game with a broom and cans.
Ice hockey is played by two teams of six players on an ice rink, with a goal net on each end.  The main objective of this very fast and dangerous game is to hit a rubber puck into the opposing team’s net with an ice hockey stick. The game begins when the referee drops the puck between the sticks of two players from the opposing teams. This is called a face-off. Every period in the game starts with a face-off. An ice-hockey rink is divided into three areas: defending, neutral and attacking. There are many other marks /face-off circles, face-off sports, lines dividing the ice rink/ in the ice rink.  Players can move from one area to another, but cannot pass the puck across more then two ones. A goal is scored when the puck crosses a goal line. Each game consists of three periods of 20 minutes, divided by breaks of 15 minutes. Both teams can use 20 players for every game. The game is watched by three referees, and there is also a goal judge behind each goalkeeper, who judges whether the puck has crossed the goal line or not, by turning a red or green light.
Vocabulary
Baseball – bat, ball, diamond, bases, get a run, batter, catcher, pitcher, umpire, home plate, pitch, strike
Basketball – basketball court, basket, dribble, pass, swish, dunk, miss the basket, hit the winning point
Cricket – pitch, bat, batsman, wicket, bowler bowls
Golf – golf club, golf ball, golf course, round, shot, golfer, hole, hole-in-one
Skating – rollerblade, roller skate, skateboard, ice-skate, ice rink, skating rink, compulsory figures
Tennis – tennis court, tennis ball, net, tennis rackets, singles, doubles, line, out, play on grass/clay, break the service, love game, deuce, advantage server/receiver, ace, winner, place a volley, hit the net, take the opening set
C.
Doing sports and games has a great impact on the person as such. It improves not only physical and mental health, but also develops the person in terms of his qualities.  Sports and games develop person’s will, readiness, endurance, ability to cooperate with other people, alertness, self-control, as well as his strength.
A successful sportsman should be courageous, strong, healthy, enthusiastic, helpful, responsible, reliable, flexible, hard-working, demanding, honest, talented and cooperative.
The impact of sports and games also depends on what type of sports or games the sportsmen do, whether individual or collective ones.
In team sports: they have to play with the others, their movement must be in harmony with those of the team-mates, it is the team that wins or looses, not the sportsman alone, they improve their ability to collaborate and work with others, they learn to evaluate other’s capabilities, they learn to know their limits, they learn to tolerate their mistakes, they learn to become less selfish and less self-centred
In individual sports: they learn to count on their own strength, they train themselves to put their utmost into the sport even if they have to make substantial sacrifices, they become aware of their own potential and their limits
What are the benefits of regular exercise? – Exercise can certainly improve the efficiency of our heart and lungs; it helps to improve breathing and blood circulation and can lower your blood pressure significantly. Exercise also helps to prevent stiffness in joints and generally reduces aches and pans and increases muscle tone and bone strength in all age categories.
D.
There are various kinds of competitions on which sportsmen can take part. 
Competitions : The Olympic Games /Olympics/, World /European/Championships, Sports Contest, NHL – National Hockey League, District / Regional / Local Competition,  Cup Final, Tournament /Tennis, Races – cycle races, motor racing, Sporting events – športové podujatia
The highest success in the life of a sportsman is the taking part in the Olympic Games.
THE OLYMPIC GAMES /since 776.B.C. – 394 A.D./ were a national festival of the old Greeks. They were held in ancient Greece – in Olympia every 4 years. They consisted mostly of fights /war games/. During the time of the OG wars were forbidden. Since the 5th century the fights lasted 5 days. The winners were given palm twigs and olive wreath. The idea of the OG was conceived by a French sportsman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. The Queen of the OG is light athletics. The seat of the International Committee that organizes the OG is in Lausanne. The first modern OG were held in Athens 1896. The official mascots of the Games are brother and sister Phevos and Athena.  Their names come from two Olympian gods: Phevos, or Apollo, was the god of light and music, and Athena was the goddess of wisdom and the patron of Athens. The aim of the OG is to promote: friendship, peace, understanding, solidarity among nations. The Olympic flame is the symbol of peace, joy and friendly competition.
Paralympics – Once the official Olympics are over, another world-class event starts: the Paralympics.  The athletes are grouped together according to the type and degree of their disability.
Extreme sports – see part A
Hooliganism: Football teams compete for a cup in different competitions such as the League Championship or the World Championship. The fans usually support their teams but many times hooliganism appears on the football field. In Britain hooliganism at matches is often a serious problem because unruly spectators cause fights and throw things on the pitch. Many decent people avoid football matches. A lot of young people travelling to support their footballers cause considerable vandalism during the journey. It is necessary toe educate young people how to behave and how to support their favourites in a polite way.
E.
Why shouldn’t doping be allowed in sports?
We all know that doping in sports is prohibited. Doping is the use of a substance or method which is potentially dangerous for the health of sportsmen but is able to improve their performance giving them an advantage over their opponents. So, why shouldn’t doping be allowed in sports? Firstly, sportsmen are idols to small children and if they take drugs, it certainly is a bad role model for all young sportsmen and sportswomen. Secondly, it is not healthy; in fact it is very dangerous to the human body when abused. And last but not least, it is unfair to the other people who try to be the best without any “support“of drugs.
As mentioned before, doping is very dangerous for the human body. There is a very fine line between supportive substances /ion drinks, vitamins, food supplements/ and drugs /anabolic steroids/. While the supportive ones can help us be healthier, the latter damage the health, actually every part of the human body. Acne appears on the skin, especially on the face. In women, the skin loses its flexibility and resilience, masculine hairs appear, the white of the eye turns to yellow, the voice falters, hair loses its quality and tends to fall out. Blood pressure rises, which can lead to a heart attack. It also damages the liver, kidneys and digestive system, which can even cause a tumour on the organs. Muscles and ligaments tend to be injured, bones stop developing, and finally, in the brain, it causes aggressive behaviour and sudden changes of moods. This simply illustrates how dangerous anabolic steroids can be when they are abused. When athletes finish their careers, they suffer from many diseases due to their previous usage of drugs.
Last but not least, it is unfair to use drugs. The point of sport should still be to DO sport, not to take drugs, to prove you are the best, not to prove which kind of drug is the best. Sport is a huge business but still it should be more about sport instead of money.
Vocabulary
¨ Who holds the record in ...?, He set up /broke, levelled/ record. , They won /lost/., He broke the rules., They deserved victory., Ready-steady-go. The match ended in a draw = The score was to all. He is crazy about skiing. He was awarded the gold medal. to disallow the shot,  accurate shot, I go in for skiing.
¨ Sports: athletics  /do/, badminton /play/, basketball /play/, boxing, cycling, diving, football /play/,golf /play/, gymnastics  /do/, hockey /play/, horse-racing, ice-skating, riding, motor-racing, rugby /play/, skiing, snooker /play/, squash /play/, surfing, swimming, tennis /play/, volleyball /play/, weightlifting, windsurfing, cricket, handball /play/, relay
¨ People: athlete, badminton  player, boxer, basketball player, cyclist,  diver, footballer/football  player, golfer /golf player, gymnast,  hockey player,  jockey, ice-skater,  racing  driver, rider,  rugby player, skater,  skier, snooker player, squash  player, surfer,  swimmer,  tennis player, volleyball player, weight-lifter, spectator, fan, favourite, underdog, captain /skipper, goalkeeper/goalie, sweeper, defender, midfield player, left wing, forwards/attackers, referee, line-up, classy players, stars-studded team, sportsman, trainer, competitor
¨ Equipment: ball, football, hockey  ball, golf ball, bat, cue, golf club,  hockey stick, ice-skates,  racing car, racket, saddle, sailboard, skis, shuttlecock, surfboard, mats, parallel bars, beam, cross/bar, /vaulting/horse, rings
¨ Places:  circuit,  court,  course,  gym,  pitch,  ring, rink, stadium, , sports hall, swimming pool, fitness/bowling/ski centre, grandstand
¨ Verbs: beat, box, catch, cycle,  dive, draw, hit, kick, lose, miss, pass, pot, practise,  race, ride, save, score, a point/a  goal, serve,  shoot, skate,  ski, swim, surf, tackle, train, throw, volley, win, cheer, boo, compete in, chant, take the lead, have an edge, appoint a new coach, take place, cancel the contest, hoist a flag, play the national anthem, free a team-mate, screen the foe, toss away the chance, open the season, qualify for the finals, defend the title, break a record, delay the start
¨ Ethics: a friendly match, to fail a drug test, urine testing, boycott the Olympics, fair play, foul play, disqualify,  suspend, hooliganism, rowdies, ways and rules, fine the club, ban from competitions, drop from the team, break the rules
 
IT IS NOT IMPORTANT TO WIN, IT IS IMPORTANT TO TAKE PART IN THE COMPETITION!
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