Shopping and Services

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 13.09.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 6 767 slov
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Praktické!
Shopping and Services
 
Pictures
1. Guess the company or product the advertisement stand for. Would the advertisements in the pictures attract you? Would you visit and buy anything there?
 
2. What kinds of shopping facilities can you recognize in these pictures? Where do you go shopping more often? And what do you buy there?
 
3. Look at the picture and compare the ways of shopping. List pros and cons of each way of shopping. Compare the quality, choice and prices of products in these places.
 
4. Look at the pictures and identify the kinds of shops they represent. Express your attitude towards the shops. What else can you buy there?
 
5. Which of these two ways of shopping do you prefer? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
 
Discussion
1. Do you think that our society is a consumer society?
2. Characterize shopping facilities.
3. List types of shops and give examples of what can be bought there.
4. List advantages and disadvantages of certain shopping facilities
5. Who does the shopping in your family?
6. What are the shopping habits in your family?
7. What is the difference of shopping around and window-shopping?
8. Are you an impulsive shopper?
9. Which services do the companies provide?
10.  Which of them do you and your family use and which you don’t use?
11.  What are the ways of advertising services? Where can you find the advertisements?
12.  What services does a post-office/bank/petrol station provide?
13.  Explain to a foreigner how to use a public telephone/how to send a parcel/how to use a public library?
14.  What do you understand under the word „advertisement“?
15.  What are the ways/types of advertisement?
16.  Are you easy to be influenced by and advertisement?
17.  How does advertisement influence people?
18.  What are the pros and cons of advertisements?
19.  Talk about your shopping habits and compare them with those of somebody you are familiar with. Explain what people do when they:
-  go shopping
-  go window shopping
-  shop around /to go to several shops before you decide what particular thing to buy/
-  shoplift
-  follow a shopping list
-  have shopping fever
-  are shopaholic or shopping addict
20.  What is a shopping mall? Name some of the types of shops that can be found in a shopping mall. What activities may also take in a mall?
21.  Have you ever returned any goods to a shop for any reason? What was it and why did you return it?
22.  Do you agree that there is too much advertising these days? Think of magazines, TV, cinema. Does advertising influence you in /not/ choosing a product?
23.  You would like to buy something new for yourself. Talk about:
-  the questions you could be asked in the shop
-  your way of choosing the clothes or shoes / colour, size, style, the most important thing for your decision/. Do you need somebody to go with you? If yes, explain why and who. If not, explain why some people need others to help them do shopping.
24.  Do you prefer to shop on a supermarket or a department store where everything is together? Or, do you rather go to a small shop where they sell just one kind of goods? Why?
25.  Do you think you get more personal service in a small shop where people know you?
26.  How often do you use the following services: hairdresser’s, beautician/cosmetician, massage, post office, repair /electrician, plumber, mechanic/? Could you name some other services you use?
27.  Characterize shopping and service facilities in Slovakia.
28.  Which services are frequently used by your family and which are not at all?
29.  What is the difference between shopping around and window shopping?
30.  Compare shopping habits in the past and at present.
31.  Make a list of the pros and cons of a shopping mall.
32.  Do you think that expensive things represent quality?
33.  Talk about the kinds and ways of buying and paying.
34.  What are your favourite shops in your area and why?  Which shops do you dislike and why?
35.  What do you think of the quality, choice and prices of products made in Slovakia and those in China?
36.  What are the ways of doing shopping?
37.  Do you also do the shopping per catalogue? Why? Why not?
38.  Which do you prefer: Slovak products or products of other countries? Why?
39.  What strategies would you as an economist use to support buying of Slovak products?
40.  Which products do we export?
41.  Which products do we import?
42.  Compare the shopping habits in the past and at present.
 
Role-plays and simulations
1. You have been brought a bill to which a service charge of 10 per cent has already been added. You are irritated that they are hoping you won’t notice and will add a further 10 per cent tip. What would you do? Explain your further steps. /Role-play/

- You would like to be a shop keeper in the future. What kind of shop would you like to run, how you would attract your customers, how would you design your shop, where would you situate your shop?  /Simulation/

- You held your birthday party at a restaurant. You were very satisfied and you want to speak to a friend. Make a conversation in which you describe the party and recommend the restaurant. Use the following notes: name of restaurant, size of table, number of guests, speed of service, courteousness, quality of food and drink, music. /Role-play/

- The town council has just decided to build a new shopping centre in the middle of the town. You are strongly against it.  Express your opinion and support your decision. /Simulation/

 
Obchod a služby
- nákupné zariadenia /obchody, hypermarkety, trhoviská/
- služby /pošta, banka, polícia, čerpacia stanica/
- reklama a vplyv reklamy na zákazníkov
- druhy a spôsoby nákupu a platenia / katalógový predaj, splátky, týždenný nákup/
- zahraničné výrobky u nás, export slovenských výrobkov
 
Shopping facilities – individually owned shops, shops being a part of a chain, department stores, shopping malls, supermarkets, hypermarkets, shopping centres, shopping streets, small shops, outdoor markets
Services – newspaper delivery, baby-sitting, odd job men, delivery of meal/flowers, dry-cleaning, laundrettes, shoe repair, photocopying, estate agencies, employment agencies, petrol stations, banks, restaurants, hotels, post-office, travel agencies, libraries, optician
Doing shopping – order by mail, home-delivery service, catalogue sales, order over the phone, buy on HP, pay cash, pay in weekly or monthly instalments
Bank – open/close an account, paying/draw out money, cash a cheque, change money, take a credit/a mortgage
Estate agencies – buying, selling houses, renting accommodation
SHOPPING
Shopping is an activity that is enjoyed by many people. There are also people who hate shopping and say that it is a waste of time. But  whether  people like  shopping or not, they  have to  go to a shop,  more or less frequently,  to buy what  they  need because  shopping is  a necessity. 
When people talk about modern life, they often use the words ´consumer society´. A consumer is someone who uses a product. A consumer society is a society in which material goods are very important, and in which the consumers themselves are very important and have a lot power. People seem to have not only more money to spend but also less time to spend it. This is reflected in people’s habits and the things they buy.
In the past, people would shop more often for staple food such as fruit, vegetables, meat and bread. They would buy these in local shops in the town or village where they lived and carry the home in bags. Other things such as newspapers and magazines, cigarettes, sweet and mil could be bought even closer to home at the nearest corner shop.
Today, many families have a big freezer at home and a microwave. Ready prepared meals such as pizza pies and many other dishes which can be taken out of the freezer, heated up and ready to eat in just a few minutes, are becoming more and more popular with people who do not have time to cook. Even people who do cook for themselves often use a lot of frozen or tinned vegetables. All this means that these is a growing trend for people to go shopping less often and to fill their cars with food to last all week or in some cases most of the month.
There are two main types of shops: those that are part of a chain or a group, and those that are individually owned. Large cities also have large department stores and huge shopping malls.
The individual shops sell goods that are also available in larger stores, but often pride themselves on the quality of their goods and service. Typical examples of such shops are clothes shop,  grocery,  florist\'s,  dairy,  bakery,  butcher\'s,  chemist’s, confectioner\'s,  fishmonger\'s, clothier\'s, hatter\'s, milliner\'s /women  hats/, shoe shop,  bookshop, stationery, hosier\'s, jeweller\'s, ironmonger, greengrocer\'s, glassware,  toyshop, newsagent’s, gift shop, pet hop and boutique.
At  the grocer\'s  people can  buy foodstuff  including flour, sugar, salt, eggs, vegetable, oil, stewed fruit, various kinds  of tea and coffee, bottled beer and juice, sweets, chocolate,  frozen and tinned vegetables and  fruit. There are also dairy products such as milk, butter, cream, cheese and yoghurt.
At the baker\'s various kinds of fresh bread, rolls, buns and cakes can be bought.
The butcher sells meat including pork, beef, lamb and poultry. Here we can buy smoked meat products such as bacon, ham, sausages and frankfurters. At the butcher’s people can also buy tinned and frozen meat and fish.
People, who like to go gardening and some do-it-yourself work around the house, frequently need some hardware. They can go to the ironmonger’s to buy hammer, pliers, nails and other tools and materials.
At  the  stationer\'s  writing  paper,  envelopes,  notebooks, pens,  ball-point  pens, pencils,  crayons,  glue,  rubber, rulers, and compasses are kept. All the things needed by school children can be bought here.
Fresh vegetables and all kinds of fruit can be bought at the greengrocer\'s and fruiterer\'s.
The chemist’s is a specialized shop where people can buy medicines. In  Britain the chemist  also keeps cosmetics  and  toilet  supplies  such as  make-ups,  shaving-cream,  razor blades, shampoo, soap and tooth-brushes.
Boutiques sell the latest fashion. Here especially the young  people have a wide choice  of dresses, shirts, skirts - plain  and  pleated, blouses  - made  of cotton  or silk,  pullovers  including  the fashionable  polo-neck pullovers,  blue jeans, but also  stockings and scarves.  Some of the boutiques also offer leather goods such as leather jackets, shoes, bags and  leather belts.
Whenever the customers enter they are attended by shop assistants who are ready to help them: What can I do for you? Can I help you?  What will you have? Is anyone serving you? What can I show you? Are you being served? These are the most questions heard in shops since morning till late evening.
Nowadays more and more customers prefer shopping in large department stores with self service, where everything can be found under one roof, to shopping in small specialized shops. But with so many people using the supermarkets and hypermarkets, the smaller shops are finding it very difficult to compete. These shops cannot afford to stock such a wide range of products as the supermarkets and neither can they afford to sell things as cheaply as the supermarkets. However, they do have advantages of their own. For example, old people living aloe without cars do not need to buy so much food as young families, and it is not vary easy for them to ravel to a supermarket, it is much easier for them to use small local shop. Children who want sweets, or anyone who wants a magazine or has forgotten to buy something on their shopping trip to the supermarket, find their local shops very useful, especially corner shop which are often open much longer hours than ordinary shops.
Many people prefer shopping at the market with number of stalls selling flowers, fresh fruit and vegetable.
Many people like to go shopping to department stores. The department stores are large buildings usually several storeys high. They have many  departments which offer their customers  all kinds of foodstuff, clothes, shoes, toys, sporting goods, leather  goods, cleaning  supplies and  cosmetics, china  and glass, hardware goods, household appliances, books, stationary  and  furniture,  all  under  one  roof.  Nearly all the big department stores have cafés, snack bars or restaurants where people can relax when they are tired of shopping. The big department stores started in America and the idea was brought to England by Gordon Selfridges some 80 years ago. Selfridges’s is still one of the biggest stores in London. It is situated in the Oxford Street in the centre of the West End.
The largest type of shops is called a hypermarket. It is usually situated outside a town, where there is a large car park.  Many hypermarkets have cash dispensers, petrol pumps and a café. Because hypermarkets are so big, you can find there everything under one roof and moreover, they are able to lower the prices quite a lot, making them cheaper than smaller shops. In fact many supermarket and hypermarkets have their own brands of the most common food products which are cheaper still. Then there is the handiness of not having to carry heavy bags of shopping along crowded streets but simply being able to unload them from the trolley into the boot of the car a few metres away. 
Shopping malls often offer additional services, like a post office, banks offering loans and insurance and tourist agencies. They also have restaurants and cafés when you can relax after finishing up your shopping. Some even have large cinemas, and some people only go to the mall to see films.
Useful vocabulary:
to go  shopping, shopping list,  shop/store, department store, self service, supermarket, market place, purchase, buy, sell, big spender,  thrifty, consumer, customer, for  sale, not for  sale, buy  on H.P. system,  pay cash, pay  by cheque, buy  on credit, cheap, expensive, reasonable prices, pay at the desk, bill, shoplifter, shelf, price-tag /cenovka/, label /štítok/, of foreign origin/home made, container,  sell out at reduced prices, 6 pence off, prices go up/down, a real bargain, trolley, basket, check-out counter, queue up/stand in line, cash-desk, cashier, charge /účtovať/, overcharge /naúčtovať veľa/, shoplifter, item,  guarantee, discount, in stock, out of stock, fitting room,
Useful phrases:
They have a good selection of the latest models. It\'s sold out. It\'s of much better quality.
Have you any cheaper ones? They will have new supplies in 2 days. What size do you take?  I need a pair two sizes larger. I\'ve bought that shirt very cheap. These products sell well. I\'ve got to do some shopping.  At what time do you close/open? I\'ll attend you in a moment.  Do you keep cosmetics? How much does it cost?  What is the price of...?  It is a real bargain. I can\'t afford it. It is out of stock.  Bicycles are in a short supply.  Wrap it up, please.
Pay the bill at the cash desk. Can I try it on?  Where is the fitting room? When will you get it?
I\'ll wait until you get new stock.  Are you being served?  It is not fashionable.
HIRE PURCHASE
The cheapest and the simplest way to buy something is to walk into a  shop and pay  cash, but if  you want to  buy some big  expensive item, like a hi-fi  set or a colour television, you   might not have enough money to pay cash. In this case you can arrange to purchase the good on HP. Of course buying things this way is a little more complicated and expensive than paying cash. You will have to fill in a form giving details of your salary and place of work and stating how long you have lived at your present address. Then you will have to pay deposit. This might be 10% or 20% of the full price.
However, if  you find saving  money a problem,  the fact that you  have to  pay your  instalments every  month can  be vary helpful, and  remember, the bigger your  deposit and the more  money you can afford each month, the quicker you will pay off  your debt and the less your purchase will finally  cost  you.
WHAT AND WHERE CAN YOU BUY?
grocery -  flour, sugar, oil,  salt, sweets, vinegar, mustard, spices  /black pepper,  paprika, caraway,  bay leaves/,pasta, juice, tin /meet, fruit, fish, vegetable/,  wine, beer, rice
utensils - can /tee, coffee, milk/, jug, funnel, lemon press,  spoon, broom, bowl, knife, scale,  spatula, cake  tin, corkscrew,  tin  opener,  wastebasket,  baking  tray, kettle, scouring pad, glass, plate,
appliances  - dishwasher,  radio, stove,  camera, hi-fi  set, fridge,  coffee  maker,  food  processor,  freezer, microwave, vacuum cleaner, kettle
jewellery -  brooch,  watch  /wrist,  table,  wall/, stone, necklace, bracelet, ear-ring, pearl, ring, tag, wedding-ring
bookshop -  poems, book of travels,  work, encyclopaedia, book  /picture, children, school/,  dictionary, novel, short story,  detective story,
confection and textile goods - blouse, cap, hat /baseball cap, sun  hat, top  hat,  bonnet, bowler  hat, sombrero/, collar, cuff-links,  crochet, needle, knitting  needle, coat, jacket,  shirt,  thread,  trousers,  tights,  raincoat, hose, sheet, scarf, dress, pin, towel, cardigan, zip,  gown, shawl, hook and eye
drugstore  -  comb,  cream, curlers,  curling  iron,  soap, shower  gel,  razor,  make-up, powder, lipstick, spiral, blade, tooth paste, after shave,
florist’s  -  violet, narcissus,  daffodil,  tulip,  rose,  sunflower, lily, pink, forget-me-not, aster
butcher\'s -  ham, steak, salami, bacon, turkey, mutton, pork, beef, veal, chicken, duck, goose, hen, smoked products
fruit -  strawberries, grapes, oranges, grapefruit, lemon,  bananas, peaches, pears, plums, cherries,  apricots,  apples
vegetables -  garlic,  onions,  potato,  cucumbers, pumpkin, beans, peas, radish, carrots, parsnips, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, spinach, pepper, broccoli, tomatoes
shoe shop -  high  boots,  soccer  shoes,  sandals, slippers,  moccasin,  clog,  flip-flop,  stiletto,  court  shoe,  pumps, trainer, hiking shoes
bakery -  bread, rolls, buns,  biscuits, cakes, pie, cracknel, doughnut
dairy - whipping cream, cheese, butter, yoghurt, Sauer cream,  ice cream, eggs, curd,
stationary shop  - ink, writing pad,  note-book, pencil, pen, glue,  rubber,  ruler,  postcard,  compasses, envelope,  paper /writing, present, colour, wrapping/,
B.
Services
Post office
to queue at counter N3, parcel counter, letter box, a postman, to hand the letter in, to send a letter /registered letter, express letter/, by airmail, to buy a tamp, to stick the stamp on the envelope, to put the letter into the envelope, to fill in the certificate of posting, parcel, to pack the parcel in wrapping paper, to tie with a string, to fill in a postal order, to hand it at the parcel counter, recipient, telephone, to make a call from a public telephone box, have money ready, lift the receiver, listen for the dial tome, put the money /the telephone card in the slot, dial the code and number, a foreign call, the line is engaged, switch-board operator, extension, bad connection, direct line, mobile phone,
Bank
open/close an account, pay in/draw out money, cash a cheque, change money, take a credit
Useful vocabulary
Service sector /sieť služieb/, to maintain essential services /poskytovať základné služby/, to be employed in service industries, customer service, nursery service /opatrovateľská služba/, emergency service /pohotovostná služba/, information service, counselling service /poradenská služba/, intelligence service /spravodajská služba/, secret service, service station /autosevis/, to take a car for a service, t have a car serviced, petrol station, taxi service, travel agency, estate agency, dust car, dustman, the cleaner’s,  the dry cleaner’s /chemická čistiareň/, laundry /práčovňa/, laundrette /samoobslužná práčovňa/, hairdresser’s, barber’s, beauty parlour, pedicure, manicure, newspaper delivery, baby sitting, odd men jobs, delivery of meal,  deliver of flowers, shoe repair, photocopying
 
6.  Health and Diseases
 
Pictures
- Describe these pictures. Which of these two types of health care do you prefer? Why?

- What characteristics should the person in the picture have? Would you like to the same job? Why? Why not?

- Describe the picture.  Talk about the lifestyle of the person. In what way is the lifestyle same or different to yours?

- Describe the picture. Talk about what happens in the surgery. What questions may the doctor be asking?

 
Discussion
- Describe the human body.

2. Name some doctors. What do they cure?
3. Divide and name diseases. Have you ever had some of them?
4. How do you prevent diseases?
5. Do you take vitamins?
6. How can the spreading of infections be prevented?
7. Do you often have headaches? What do you do about them?
8. How often and when do you go to see your doctor?
9. Compare classical medicine with alternative. Give the pros and cons.

- What diseases do you remember having? What is your worst memory of being sick?
- How do you feel when you are sick and have to stay in bed?
- If you feel you may be getting the flu, what do you do
- Have you ever had an injury and if so, what was it and how did it happen? What did the doctors do and how long did it take to heal?
- How do you feel when you have to visit the dentist?

15.  Do you live a healthy lifestyle?
16.  What do you understand under „healthy lifestyle“?
17.  How do you manage stress?
18.  What do you consider the most stressful for you? How do you cope with the   situation?

- What have you got in your medicine chest?
- What does a healthy lifestyle mean?
- What is meant by healthy food?
- How important is staying healthy for you? What are the benefits of good health?
- What do you think are the main principles for maintaining good health?
- What do you personally do to protect your health? Do you feel that your lifestyle is healthy?
- Do you think that people in Slovakia are given proper health care?

26.  What is important to prevent diseases and accidents?
27.  Is prevention important? Why? „Prevention is better than cure. “ Do you agree?
28.  Have you ever been vaccinated against diseases?
29.  Is all medical care free of charge? In which cases does one pay for medical treatment?
30.  Compare state and private health system/care.
31.  Health insurance – Do you think it is important to pay? Do you get proper health care? 
32.  What do you think of the system of family doctors?
 
Role-plays and simulations
- You were supposed to go to the cinema with a friend, but you have come down with the flu. Call your friend and describe how you are feeling /including all your symptoms/ and apologise for no being able to meet him/her. /Role-play/

- How would you persuade your roommate to change his/her lifestyle? Try to explain the possible dangers of bad eating habits, smoking, stress and laziness. /Role-play/

 
3. Describe the situation what happens next when you arrive at doctor‘s. /waiting room, surgery, chemist’s/ /Simulation/

- You want to become a vegetarian because you are convinced that it is the only way to be healthy. Your parents disagree. What are your arguments to persuade them it is a good idea? /Role-play/

- Your best friend desires to become a model. She has been on a strict diet for over a year, and now she does not eat at all. You are convinced that she has anorexia nervosa and needs professional help as soon as possible. What do you do? /Role-play/

- Patient: You do not feel well. You want to explain to the doctor that all the members of your family are ill and that is why you think that you have got the flu. Describe your symptoms and answer all the doctor’s questions.

Doctor: Ask as many questions as possible to get information about your patient’s illness. You like using natural methods of healing. Suggest some things your patient can do to feel better. /Role-play/
 
Starostlivosť o zdravie
  - ľudské telo
- bežné a civilizačné choroby, telesné a fyzické stavy, návšteva u lekára, v lekárni
- zdravý spôsob života /správna životospráva, telesná a duševná hygiena/
- zdravotnícka starostlivosť /prevencia, očkovanie/
- štátne a súkromné zdravotníctvo /zdravotné poistenie, odborní lekári/

A.
The human body consists of a skeleton and muscles and the whole body is covered with skin. The body is made up of the head, the trunk and the limbs. The head, which is partly covered in hair, contains the brain, the centre of the nervous system. The parts of the head are the forehead, the eyebrows, the eyelids, the eyelashes, the temples, the ears, the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the cheek, the jaw and the chin. In the mouth there are teeth for chewing the food and a tongue for pushing the food between the teeth. 
The head is connected to the trunk by the neck. The trunk includes the chest, the back, the shoulders and the abdomen. Internal organs in the trunk are the heart, the lungs, the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the kidneys, the bladder, the gall-bladder and the guts.
The arms and legs are called the limbs. The leg is composed of the hip, the thigh, the knee, the calf, the ankle and the foot. The foot has a heel, a sole and 5 toes. The arm consists of the upper arm and the forearm, the armpit, the elbow, the wrist and the hand. The inner side of the hand is the palm. On each hand there are 4 fingers and a thumb.
The movement of the body is produced by the contraction and expansion of the muscles. There are 230 bones in the human body.
People with bad eyesight wear glasses or contact lenses. Those who cannot see are blind. The eyes are the organs of sight. The nose is the organ of smell and the ears are the organs of hearing and balance. Those who cannot hear are deaf and those who cannot speak are mute. The nerves in the skin are the organs of touch and the taste buds, for tasting, are on the tongue. The five senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.
 
Useful vocabulary:
doctors – GP /general practitioner/, dentist, paediatrician, orthopaedist, specialist for internal diseases, urologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon, dermatologist, ear and throat specialist, psychiatrist,
parts of the human body - head – hlava, skull – lebka, eyes – oči, brain - mozog ,hair – vlasy, nose – nos, face – tvár,  forehead – čelo, mouth – ústa, eyebrows – obočie,  eyelids – viečka, tongue – jazyk, eyelashes – mihalnice,  teeth - zuby , guns – ďasná, lips – pery,  cheeks – líca,  chin – brada, ears – uši, temples – spánky,  jaw – čeluste, neck - krk,  throat – hrdlo, shoulder – rameno, colarbone – kľúčna kosť,  arm - celá  ruka,  armpit – pazucha,  elbow – lakeť,  hand – ruka,  wrist – zápästie, fist – päsť,  palm – dlaň,  fingers – prsty, fingertips - končeky prstov,  thumb - palec,  nails – nechty,  knuckles - hánky,  leg - celá  noha,  thigh – stehno, knee – koleno,  ankle – členok, calf – lýtko, foot,feet – noha, toes – prsty, heel – päta, sole – chodidlo, limbs – končatiny,  joints – kĺby,  trunk – trup, spine – chrbtica, ribs – rebrá, chest – hrudník, back – chrbát,  hips – boky,  bottom – zadok,  bosom – prsia,  waist – pás,  abdomen – brucho,  intestines – vnútornosti, lungs – pľúca,  heart – srdce,  stomach – žalúdok,  liver – pečeň, kidneys – obličky, bladder - moč. mechúr, bone – kosť, gallblader – žlčník,  skeleton – kostra, flesh - mäso tela,  genitals - pohlavné orgány, muscle – sval, skin – koža,  nerves – nervy,  blood circulation - kr.obeh, tissue – tkanivo, veins – žily, blood vessels – cievy, glands – žľazy

B.

Diseases and illnesses
children’s diseases – measles, chicken-pox, mumps, rash, allergies, cough, constipation, diarrhoea, scarlet fever, tonsillitis, bronchitis, sore throat, rubella, 
adult people diseases – diabetes heart troubles, heart attack, indigestion, kidney stones, gall-bladder stone, asthma, cancer, peptic ulcer, rheumatism, sciatica,
infectious diseases – jaundice, AIDS, pneumonia, smallpox, flu
others – appendicitis, tuberculosis, nausea, dizziness, giddiness, insomnia, headache, toothache
accidents – fractures, burns, cuts, scalds /obareniny/, poisoning /swallowing, touching or breathing in a poisonous substance/, sprained ankle, twisted knee, swollen knee, broken leg,
ILLNESSES AND DISEASES – serious illness, curable, incurable, chronic, epidemic, infectious, hereditary, AIDS /Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/ - AIDS, anaemia – chudokrvnosť,  appendicitis - zápal slepého čreva, asthma attack - astmatický záchvat, blood poisoning - otrava krvi,  bronchitis - zápal priedušiek, cancer – rakovina, concussion - otras mozgu, constipation – zápcha, contagious diseases - nákazlivé choroby, diabetes – cukrovka, diarrhoea – hnačka, diphtheria – záškrt, flu – chrípka,  heart attack – infarkt, indigestion - porucha trávenia,  insomnia – nespavosť,  jaundice – žltačka,  kidney stones - obličkové kamene, measles – osýpky, mumps – mums, nausea – žalúdočná nevoľnosť,  peptic ulcer – žalúdočné vredy,  plague – mor,  pneumonia – zápal pľúc,  polio - detská  obrna,  rheumatism – reumatizmus, scarlet fever – šarlach,  smallpox – kiahne, stroke – mŕtvica,  tonsillitis – angína, tuberculosis – tuberkulóza,  typhoid fever – týfus,  whooping cough - čierny kašeľ, salmonelosis, bulimia, anorexia, malnutrition, obesity, hypertension, leukemia, muteness, deafness, blindness, short-sightedness, long-sightedness

INJURY
– get hurt, cut oneself, fall down, slip, break a limb, get stung /pichnúť žihadlom/, be drowning, poison oneself, bleed, wound, cut, stab wound /bodná rana/, laceration /tržná rana/, dislocation /vykĺbenie/, swollen bruise /modrina/, scar /jazva/, blister /pľuzgier/, burn, scramp /kŕč/, concussion /otras mozgu/, blackout /prechodná strata vedomia/, epileptic fit, abortion

A visit to the doctor

If you are feeling ill, you should visit the doctor. At the health centre the doctors are available during their consulting hours. It is better to make an appointment with the doctor in his surgery time if we want to avoid long waiting in the waiting room which may often be crowded. When you arrive you may have to sit in the waiting room with the other patients till it is your turn to be examined by the doctor. When the doctor is ready to see you a nurse will call you into the surgery. The nurse has to look for our medical record and wants to see our insurance card and then takes our temperature with a thermometer. In the surgery the doctor may ask you “What’s the matter with you? Do you have any pain? Where does it hurt? Do you have a fever?“ He will examine you carefully. He may look at your tongue, check your pulse and your blood pressure and listen to your heart and lungs. He also may want you to open your mouth to say “Ah“to see if your tonsils are red.  Sometimes he takes the blood count and throat culture or puts urine through lab tests.  Finally the doctor diagnoses the case and therapy and prescribes some medicine /drops, tablets, ointment/ and he will instruct you on the dosage. After seeing the doctor you should take the prescription he has given you to the chemist’s where the medicine will be dispensed to you. If you are not seriously ill you will probably recover after taking the medicine as directed and resting at home for a few days.
Classical vs. alternative medicine
Classical medicine offers treatment with painkillers. It fights against illness and disease with drugs and surgery by which doctors can save millions of people. On the other hand, taking a lot of medicine can destroy other organs of your body, e.g. liver or kidneys. That is why many people prefer other kinds of treatment which are sometimes called traditional or alternative medicine. The term traditional fits ancient arts such as herbalism but hardly applies to acupuncture or shiatsu. Alternative medicine looks at the whole person, not just the illness. This includes your age, your family background, eating habits, sleeping habits, regular exercise, job conditions, and bad habits like drinking, smoking and problems you have to face in your everyday life.
There are different types of alternative medicine like acupuncture, homeopathy and osteopathy. Acupuncturists use needles to make a person’s energy to flow in a more balanced way. The needles are rotated clockwise or anticlockwise, according to whether energy is to be stimulated or lessened.
Everything we need exists in mature, which is why homeopathy uses natural plants and flowers to beat illness. Homeopathy is not concerned with the processes or causes of disease, but with its symptoms.
Osteopathy is a system of movements which correct problems with the bones and muscles.  Osteopaths push, pull and twist the body with their hands which puts all the bones or muscles in the right place.
While alternative medicine treats the body without using chemicals, traditional medicine is very important in accidents and emergencies. The best solution is when traditional and alternative medicine work hand in hand.
What have you got in your medicine chest? - vitamins, headache/sleeping/sickness pills, pain killers, disinfection, nose drops, antiseptic, eyewash, bandage, band aid, medicinal herbs, medicinal charcoal, boric acid, peroxide, sticking plaster, pad /tampón/, thermometer, sling /trojrohá šatka/, ointment, laxative
What diseases do you remember having? What is your worst memory of being sick? – I have had several of the common childhood diseases, such as measles/chickenpox/mumps...  Several times, I’ve also had the flu/tonsillitis/ a cold.... My worst illness was when I was about ....years old. At that time I....
How do you feel when you are sick and have to stay in bed? – I am an active person, so having to stay in bed is annoying/boring/frustrating... for me. If I feel really miserable, I don‘t mind/am quite content/feel good about/...staying in bed.
If you feel you may be getting the flu, what do you do? – I think it is best to rest so as not to get seriously ill/ stay at home and not infect others..., For me it’s good to do the necessary things but also get extra rest/ try to ignore the symptoms and concentrate on what I have to do..., I like to keep going to school because I don’t like to stay in bed/I’m afraid of missing too much schoolwork...
Have you ever had an injury and if so, what was it and how did it happen? What did the doctors do and how long did it take to heal? – I have had a broken arm/sprained ankle... It happened while playing sport/in a car accident..., I had to stay in hospital/wear a plaster cast/walk on crutches/...for....weeks/months/.
How do you feel when you have to visit the dentist? – I don’t mind going to the dentist because usually it doesn’t hurt too much/it’s good to prevent more serious problems. I very much dislike the dentist’s office because I’m scared of what he’ll do to me/I hate the drilling of my teeth...
Useful vocabulary
Treatment - medical care, pretend an illness, be on a sick leave, undergo an examination, make an appointment with the doctor, surgery hours, general check-up, vomit, sneeze, recover, cure, faint, strip to the waist, take tb’s temperature, listen to sb’s heart/lungs, listen to sb breathe, look into sb’s throat, check sb’s blood pressure and pulse,, test sb’s reflexes, do a blood test, allergic to, breathing difficulties, cold compress /obklad/, cotton wool, extract a tooth,  fight off the virus, flu shot /očkovanie proti chrípke/, inflammation of the throat /zápal hrdla/, insect bite, irritation in the throat /dráždenie v hrdle/, lose consciousness, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation,  National Institute of Public Health, pick up a virus, plaster cast /sádrový obväz/,  surgery hours, a doctor on call /pohotovostný lekár/
dental care – brush, toothbrush, floss, cavity /dutina/, bad tooth, toothache, filling, drill, extract, pull out, wisdom tooth, receding gums, plaque, crown, dentures, braces /strojček na zuby/, dental hygiene
departments in a hospital – Cardiology, Dermatology, Emergency Room, ENT /Ear, Nose and Throat/, Gastroenterology, Gynaecology, Haematology, Immunology, Intensive Care, Laboratory, Neurology, Oncology, Operating Centre, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics, Paediatrics, Pathology, Radiology, Rehabilitation, Ultrasound, Urology, X-ray
medicine – medicament, medication, pill, tablet, capsule, drops, ointment, powder, lotion, syrup, gargle, lozenge /cukrík na cmúľanie pri kašli/, sedatives, painkillers, tranquillizers, sleeping pills, antibiotics, dose, overdose, side-effect, interaction
C.
What does a healthy lifestyle mean?
-  go to bed early, get up early, eat healthily, no bad habits, do body-building exercises, a healthy diet, no stress, a lot of sleep, have a regular daily routine, sufficient sleep, take a rest, overwork, avoid excitement, no smoking, no alcohol, healthy food, physical training, go for walks,
 
What is meant by healthy food?
-  a lot of vitamins, eat fruit and raw vegetables, drink good water, eat slowly, take time to eat, eat more times a day in small amounts, not eat smoked meat and sausages, not drink spirits, little salt and spices, little or no caffeine, eat lean meat, fish, poultry, cereals, dark bread, avoid fat meat and high calorie dishes
•  How important is staying healthy for you? What are the benefits of good health? – I believe that health is one of the most important aspects of life / extremely precious / more valuable than money.  When you are healthy, you not only have no aches and pains but you are also physically fitter/more emotionally balanced / better socially adjusted.
•  What do you think are the main principles for maintaining good health? – One of the important rules for health is a good diet consisting of.... Also important are.....
•  What do you personally do to protect your health? Do you feel that your lifestyle is healthy? – I try to protect my health by ... Also, I avoid health hazards such as tobacco/excess alcohol/ drugs.... I think my lifestyle is quite healthy because..... I feel my lifestyle could be healthier if I......

D.

The number of health centres and hospitals in our country has been growing. There are not only health centres in all towns, but there is also a doctor at every big factory and in every bigger village.
Everybody in our country has the right to choose a doctor. At present two types of health facilities operate in this country: state and private ones.
Medical care is provided for our citizens from birth to death. Each of us is looked after even before birth under the scheme called prenatal care which includes medical check-ups before the child is born and then maternity ward services. Soon after birth each child is vaccinated.
Each school child is under medical supervision which means that he or she has to undergo a series of preventive medical and dental check-ups where his body is examines, his teeth checked and eyesight tested.
A healthy lifestyle, prevention and personal responsibility for our health can help us avoid possible dangers like infectious diseases, heart attacks and brain damage. We need to go to the doctor for check-ups, get eye exams done, weigh ourselves regularly, and see the dentist twice a year. Many people care about their health and never forget to clean their teeth, do breathing exercises, go for a run, take vitamin pills, have a massage, and have a sauna or a steam bath. Others need to learn that if they don’t take care of themselves now, they may not be around later.

E.

Although medical care in our country is basically free of charge, the government encourages all citizens to be responsible for their health and has introduced a system in which the patient partly shares the cost of some treatment and medicine.
According to the law, all citizens are covered by health insurance. Though there are several health insurance companies, state and private, most people belong to the General Health Insurance Company. The Health Insurance System is currently undergoing some changes. Employers pay health insurance for their employees but private persons must pay for their insurance themselves while the state pays the insurance for children and retired people.
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