New Zealand - Factfile, Symbols

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Autor: Chlapec studak
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 07.02.2014
Jazyk: Angličtina
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New Zealand

2.1. Factfile
OFFICIAL NAME: New Zealand
FORM OF GOVERNMENT: constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
CAPITAL: Wellington
AREA:  268,680 km2
POPULATION: 4,306,400
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: English, Maori
OTHER LANGUAGE: NZ Sign Language
LITERACY RATE: 99%
RELIGIONS: Anglican 17,5%, Roman Catholic 13%, Presbyterian 13%, other Christian 17%, other 2,5%, none 16,6%
ETHNIC GROUPS: European 71,7%, Maori 14,5%, other 13,8%
CURRENCY: New Zealand dollar
ECONOMY: Services 70%, industry 20%, agriculture 10%
TIME ZONE: GMT + 12 hours
DRIVES:  on the left
HIGHEST POINT: Mt. Cook 3,764 m
 
2.2. Symbols
2.2.1. New Zealand Flag
The New Zealand Flag is the symbol of the realm government and people of New Zealand. Its royal blue background is reminiscent of the blue sea and clear sky surrounding us. The stars of the Southern Cross emphasise this country's location in the South Pacific Ocean. The Union Flag gives recognition to our historical foundations and the fact that New Zealand was once a British colony and dominion.   The New Zealand Flag may be flown on any day of the year. It is particularly appropriate to fly it on days of national commemoration, such as Anzac Day, and on other important occasions.

2.2.2. National anthem

'National songs, ballads and hymns have a tendency to elevate the character of a people and keep alive the fire of patriotism in their breasts'. The Saturday Advertiser and New Zealand Literary Miscellany, 1 July 1876.   New Zealand holds a rare position in the world in that it has two national anthems of equal standing - 'God Defend New Zealand' and 'God Save The Queen'. Both of these anthems have origins which have been inspired by the fire of patriotism yet were written under markedly different situations.

2.2.3. Coat of arms

Coats of Arms are widely used in New Zealand by major institutions, local authorities and even in some cases individuals. Their decorative qualities, symbolism and historical aspects hold an enduring interest. A traditional expression of national identity, the New Zealand Coat of Arms proclaims the sovereign nature of New Zealand and the authority of the Government.    The Coat of Arms can be seen on a variety of documents and papers of constitutional and national significance, ranging from Acts of Parliament and Proclamations, to passports.  One of the more interesting uses of the Coat of Arms occurred in 1962 when The Queen adopted her personal flag for New Zealand, which featured the shield design of the Coat of Arms. The Queen's Service Medal for community or public services, also features the Coat of Arms, as does the badge of the Order of New Zealand.

2.2.4. Waitangi Day

Waitangi Day, 6 February, marks the anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. This Treaty, often described as New Zealand's founding document, was an agreement between Maori chiefs and the British Crown, and covered issues of sovereignty, possession and rights of citizenship. Differences between the English and Maori texts of the Treaty, and breaches of its terms in the years following its signing, have complicated New Zealanders' sense of the ongoing importance of this agreement.  Over the last twenty years or so, government has sought to encourage greater understanding of the Treaty as a key element in our history, and to promote its nation building potential. The Ministry manages the Commemorating Waitangi Day Fund, from which grants are available for inclusive community events commemorating the signing of the Treaty and celebrating the country we live in today.

2.2.5. Anzac Day
Anzac Day, 25 April, marks the anniversary of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps' first landing on the Gallipoli peninsula in 1915, during the First World War. Although the Allies lost the Gallipoli campaign, this was an important episode in New Zealand's history. It showcased attitudes and attributes – bravery, tenacity, practicality, ingenuity, loyalty to King and comrades – that helped New Zealand define itself as a nation, even as it fought unquestioningly on the other side of the world in the name of the British Empire, and suffered appalling loss of life. The day is now the focus for a broader acknowledgement of the costs of war: the sacrifice of all those who have died in warfare is remembered, as is the contribution and suffering of all those who have served. Anzac Day promotes a sense of unity, perhaps more effectively than any other day on the national calendar. People whose politics, beliefs and aspirations are widely different can nevertheless share a genuine sorrow at the loss of so many lives in war, and a real respect for those who have endured warfare on behalf of their country.  Although there are local ceremonies marking Anzac Day throughout New Zealand, the Ministry is responsible for the National War Memorial at which the National Anzac Day service is held. This service is organised by the Visits and Ceremonial Office of the Department of Internal Affairs, in partnership with the Ministry.
 
2.3. Maori
Maori believe that they ancestors come from Island Hawaiki which is in the Pacific ocean. Is said they came on their 7 long canoes with their headman called Tama Te Kapua. Nowadays he has his memorable house in Ohinemutu. They also carried dogs and rats which weren’t on New Zealand before. It was circa year 1350. Archaeologists ascertained Polynesians came to the island long before- in 8th century or earlier.   Before the arrival of Europeans existed 5 big Maoris’ tribes in New Zealand. These were devised into clans (hapuu). They lived in villages paled of palisades and ditches, in houses with straw roofs. Maori grew various kinds of potatoes, hunted flyless birds ‘moa’ and were well fishmen. Women could’t hunt fish, they made dresses from flax by stonys instruments. The biggest values in society of fighters were courage, faithfulness and probity. Split breaks between tribes were handled by wooden or stonys swords and waddies.  A lot of men, women and children who were taken, winners murdered and ate. They believed this way took life energy and spiritual power of the victim. Maoris’ fighters loved sparring and relished revenge. They had many tattoos. They made spiral slashes and into it embrocated colours. Europeans knew New Zealand till 1642. At that time the Dutch navigator discovered the south part of the Island. Maori killed four of his men so Tasman left the island. The Dutch celled the island Nieuw Zeeland.  In 1769 British explorer James Cook established friendly relations with some Maori. By 1800, visits by European ships were relatively frequent. The island became a resort for proscribed people. Europeans gave alcohol and weapons to Maori which were used in tribal frays. It was start of destruction of Maori. They was dying because of European illnesses such as pox. They have no esophylaxis. In New Zealand was no legal government so British delegated Captain William Hobson as governor. In 1840 he and Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi. This treaty established British rule, granted the Maori British citizenship, and recognized Maori land rights. Today many of the treaty's provisions are disputed and there ahs been and is an effort from the New Zealand Government to recompense Maori for some land that was illegally confiscated.   When the Europeans started to occupy ground, intensity between them and Maori was getting stronger. From 1845 to 1847 Maori raised up against colonizers but they were loser. From 1860 to 1872 located many battles. Doughtiness of Maori couldn’t offer resistance to technical predominance of Europeans. The war ended in 1872 and Maori lost mess of land.  The present Maori population is around 600,000 or 14% of the population, and the Maori live in all parts of New Zealand, but predominately in the North Island where the climate is warmer. They integrate into European society much better than native Australians - Aboriginals.

2.4. Fauna and flora
With the exception of two species of bat, no indigenous mammals are native to New Zealand. The only other wild mammals at present are those that have been introduced and they are usually considered as pests. These includes deer, goats, pigs, rabbits, weasels, ferrets, and the Australian opossum, as well as domesticated animals such as dogs and cats. New Zealand contains no snakes and has only one poisonous spider called the Katipo, which is related to the Australian Redback. The Katipo is very rare and its bite is never lethal.   Other insects include the Weta which is extremely frightening in appearance, but is relatively harmless and the cicada, the loudest insect in the world. New Zealand's most unique animal is the Tuatara, which is a lizard-like reptile that predates the Dinosaur and is considered a living fossil.   There are some 70 species of birds found nowhere else in the world, more than a third of them are flightless, and almost a quarter of them nocturnal. The survival of flightless birds was attributed to the absence of predatory animals, but introduced species have made New Zealand a much less favourable place to live for these birds and subsequently many flightless birds are endangered and some have become extinct. Notable New Zealand birds include the Tui, Bellbird, Kiwi, Kakapo, Takahe, and Weka. New Zealand is also home to many seabirds including the Albatross, which has the longest wing span of any bird in the world. The most spectacular of all New Zealand birds was the Moa. Unfortunately this exceptional bird was hunted to extinction by the time the first European set foot on New Zealand. Some Moa's reached heights of 15 feet, making them the tallest bird in the world. There have been some supposed sightings of this bird in remote areas, but there has never been any hard evidence that it still exists. It must be noted however, that there are still areas in New Zealand that have never been sighted by humans, particularly in Fiordland. This does open a remote, although unlikely possibility that it could still exist. A bird called the Takahe was once thought to be extinct, but was rediscovered in a remote area of Fiordland National Park in 1948. Through successful breeding programs, this bird now has a healthy population.
 
 
 
 
2.5. Places of interests, attractions
Cape Reinga
Cape Reinga is the northwestern most tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, at the northern end of the North Island of New Zealand. Cape Reinga is located over 100 km north of the nearest small town of Kaitaia. There is a road all the way but the final 19 km are 'metal' road (which is to be upgraded to a standard seal within the next years). Suitable vehicles can travel much of the way via Ninety Mile Beach and Te Paki stream bed. The name of the cape comes from the Māori word 'Reinga', meaning the 'Underworld'. Another Māori name is 'Te Rerenga Wairua', meaning the leaping-off place of spirits. Both refer to the Māori belief that the cape is the point where the spirits of the dead enter the underworld.    As of January 2007, Cape Reinga is on the tentative list of UNESCO waiting to receive World Heritage Site status. The cape is already a favourite tourist attraction, with over 120,000 visitors a year and around 1,300 cars arriving per day during peak season. Visitor numbers are growing by about 5% a year, and the increase is likely to become even more pronounced once the road to the cape is fully sealed.

White Island (Whakaari)
White Island is one of the most fascinating and accessible volcanoes on earth, carrying with it an A grade level of scientific importance.  As New Zealand’s only live marine volcano, scientists and volcanologists worldwide are attracted by its unique features.

The volcano is estimated to be between 100,000 and 200,000 years old.  However, the small portion of the island that is visible above sea level has been in its present form for an estimated  16,000 years  - evidence of a continually changing landscape.    Walking on White Island is like walking on the moon.  Virtually no vegetation survives the harsh acidic environment inside the crater walls.  Instead, lush beds of yellow and white sulphur crystals grow amongst hissing, steaming, bubbling fumaroles.  Giant mounds, remnants of the 1914 Great Landslide, dwarf visitors as they wind their way up to the Main Crater.  Venturing to the edge, they are greeted by an amazing sight - an immense crater, with towering walls shielding its spectacular lake and punctuated by steamy vents from which the power of the inner earth constantly belches forth.  Neighbouring Donald Duck and Noisy Nellie Craters each have their own stories to tell and a view from on high.  Down below, bright yellow chimneys of delicate sulphur crystals enhance the alien landscape and lure the visitor for a closer look. In contrast to these natural features, stand the ruins of an old factory, the only human testament to the numerous failed sulphur mining attempts of days gone by, and now slowly being reclaimed by Mother Nature.  Scientific equipment is discreetly positioned around the volcano.  Its activity is constantly being monitored by IGNS (Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences).  A seismograph, survey pegs, magnetometers and a camera all provide information on just what the volcano is up to.  Up-to-date images of the island can be viewed hourly at www.geonet.org.nz   White Island currently sits on an alert level rating of 1, meaning she is always active, constantly steaming.  Misty, roaring, ashing, rumbling - who knows what mood she’ll be in if you are fortunate enough to visit.....

Milford Sound
Milford Sound is a fjord in the south west of New Zealand's South Island, within Fiordland National Park and the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site. It has been judged the world's top travel destination in an international survey, and is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination. Rudyard Kipling had previously called it the eighth Wonder of the World.

Abel Tasman National Park

Located near the northwest tip of the South Island, Abel Tasman national park is one of New Zealand‘s  most beautiful natural areas. On the west side Tasman Bay 17km from Nelson, the park covers 225 sq km of native forest and includes numerous islands, rocs and reefs within  the Tonga Island Marin Reserve. This coastline has an allure of its own – hills of native bush descent to beaches of golden send, and rocky granite headlands just out into a perfect blue – green sea. It’s no surprise that the area has become a popular haunt for trampers and boaties alike. The Department of Conservations manages both the Inland Track and the popular Coast Track that runs 15km from Marahau to Wainui Bay at the north and of the Park. There are camping areas along the way and Park huts at The Anchorage in Torand Bay, Bark Bay, Awaroa Bay and Whariwharingi Bay. The water taxi service that operate from the mane bays can be a great convenience for those walking just  part of the  Coastal Track. Another way of enjoying this stunning coastline is by kayak, and organised see – kayaking tours are going in popularity.  

Dunedin
This is the closest you'll get to Scotland in the Pacific. If you can't possibly return from the South Pacific without buying a kilt or a locally fermented single malt whisky, you've come to the right place. Shore excursions will take you close enough to Antarctica to visit with penguins or far enough inland to explore one of New Zealand's precipitous gorges.

Christchurch – The Garden City
Christchurch and Canterbury are famous for natural beauty and a wealth of things to do. Christchurch has a lively entertainment scene, strong cultural heritage, gorgeous parks and gardens, lots of sports facilities and good shopping.  Among the 'must sees' are the weekend Arts Centre market, Christchurch Cathedral, Botanic Gardens and International Antarctic Centre. The Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu exhibit's New Zealand and international art and Canterbury Museum has fine cultural and natural collections as well as creative and imaginative displays. Orana Park is New Zealand's largest wildlife reserve and Willowbank Wildlife Reserve has among its displays New Zealand's largest daytime kiwi viewing area. Air Force World captures the adventure and history of flight in New Zealand and Christchurch Casino offers 24-hour gaming entertainment. Visitors can be introduced to Maori culture at Nga Hau E Wha Marae.

Wellington
Wellington is the capital city of New Zealand and home to the seat of parliament. But this vibrant and dynamic city also has many other capital claims including Culture capital, Creative capital and Events capital. Wellington is home to most national theatre, dance and performance companies, as well as the national museum, archives and library. As a result there's something on almost every night in Wellington - from pacific inspiration to local and international perfomances.  The city is nestled between the harbour and steep, forest-clad hills - and is wonderfully walkable. The revamped waterfront area leads from the cruise dock at the eastern edge of town to the must-see Te Papa museum in the west. A stroll along the quay is filled with surprises. There's a grassy playground for kids, large-scale sculptures and fun wooden walkways. Cross the street, and you'll have your choice of cafes and shops.

Auckland
Auckland has so much to see and do - there's plenty of entertainment for a few hours, a few days or a few weeks. Here's a taste of some of Auckland's unique activities:

Rangitoto Island

Walk or ride to the summit of Rangitoto, the lava rock sleeping volcano in the middle of the Hauraki Gulf. Rangitoto emerged from the sea in a fiery explosion around 600 years ago and now is an iconic jewel in the Auckland harbour.

Island escapes
Enjoy wine and olive tasting, lazing on the beach and art trails on laid back Waiheke Island, a 35 minute ferry ride from downtown Auckland. Or escape to the wilderness of Great Barrier Island, with bush tracks leading to natural hot springs and historic kauri tree dams.

On the water
Take a cruise on a chartered launch or classic yacht on the Waitemata Harbour. Or go racing on an America's Cup yacht, take a dolphin-spotting excursion or a gentle ferry ride to a seaside suburb.

Culture and heritage
See the biggest collection of Maori taonga (treasures) in the world at Auckland War Memorial Museum, plus see a performance of traditional Maori songs and dances. Learn about New Zealand's unique flora and fauna, and the European settlers who shaped its colonial heritage.

Sky Tower
Jump off the tallest building in the Southern Hemisphere – SkyJump is 192 metres of cable-controlled base jumping from the Sky Tower. Alternatively walk around the outside of the tower with SkyWalk, or just admire the view from the safety of the observation deck and restaurants.

Kelly Tarlton's Antarctic Encounter and Underwater World
Spend a day at Kelly Tarlton's and discover the unique sea life that lives in and around New Zealand's waters. Walk through an underwater glass tunnel, see real life King and Gentoo penguins or for the brave at heart, swim with stingrays and sharks!
 
Auckland Harbour Bridge
Spanning the Waitemata Harbour, the Auckland Harbour Bridge offers spectacular views of Auckland city and the islands of the gulf. To admire these views and get the heart racing, climb over the bridge or bungy jump off it!

Bay of Islands

If experiencing New Zealand's natural treasures, forests and water-intensive activities is important to you, this may be the highlight of your entire cruise. This is prime sailing territory, so look for the chance to participate in guided sailing excursions. If your ship offers charter fishing trips, and you're so inclined, this is (according to Zane Grey) one of the top deep-sea fishing locations on the planet. Forest and shoreline hiking will expose you both to evidence of the first Maori communities encountered by Europeans and to what was once the booming, swashbuckling whaling and maritime centre of life in New Zealand.

Mt. Tarawera
Mt Tarawera is the sacred mountain of the local Maori Tribe Ngati Rangitihi. As the highest mountain in their tribal area it plays an important role in Maori culture. High-ranking members of the tribe are buried on the mountain in sacred areas. During the 1800s, the world-famous Pink and White Silica Terraces at Lake Rotomahana were regarded as the 8th wonder of the world and became New Zealand’s first tourist attraction. On June 10, 1886, Mt Tarawera erupted, destroying the terraces, devastating the surrounding landscape and villages with a loss of over 150 lives. Just days before eruption, a phantom canoe or apparition was seen on Lake Tarawera by both Maori and European.  Mt Tarawera lies within the Okataina Volcanic Centre, one of five major active areas within the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Tarawera is made up of 11 rhyolite domes and pyroclastics from eruptions from within the southern part of the Haroharo Caldera formed by volcanic episode more than 20,000 years ago. Tarawera has erupted five times and today is sleeping.

Mt. Ruapehu

In September 1887 the sacred mountain peaks, Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe and Tongariro, were gifted to the people of New Zealand by the Paramount Chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa, Horonuku Te Heu Heu Tukino, thus ensuring their protection for all people for all time. This gift formed the nucleus of Tongariro National Park, New Zealand’s first national park and a dual World Heritage area. Whakapapa Ski Area is located on the northern slopes of Mt Ruapehu which are the traditional lands of Ngati Tuwharetoa people. The upper slopes are within the original gifted area. Turoa Ski Area is located on the southern slopes of Mt Ruapehu which are the traditional lands of the Ngati Rangi and Ngati Uenuku people. Ruapehu Alpine Lifts Ltd operates both ski areas under licences issued by the Department of Conservation.

Whakapapa and Turoa are New Zealand’s two largest ski areas. The incredible volcanic terrain provides all kinds of hidden gems within the ski area boundaries. The Mt Ruapehu Mountain Hosts will take you to the best spots for free! Morning and Afternoon tours leave daily.  Mt Ruapehu is home to the most awesome natural skiing and snowboarding terrain in the country – huge snow filled basins, steep chutes, drop-offs and secret powder stashes.   Mt Ruapehu offers something for everyone: world-class learner’s facilities, terrain parks for snowboarders and freeskiers of all abilities, and the best spring skiing in New Zealand. On a good day the hike to Mt Ruapehu’s Crater Lake is well worth it for the 1000 m vertical ride back down.
 
Oparara Basin Arches
Rich unspoiled rainforest stretching across a broad valley floor, three magnificent arches sculpted by the Oparara River, bush-fringed streams stained the colour of billy tea from the humic acids washing down through the soil, and an underground treasure hidden away in a highly complex cave system, combine to make this area one of immense national and international significance. The Oparara River is the habitat of the whio or blueduck, which frequents the swift-flowwing waters. The Department of Conservation has some 450 stoat traps in the Oparara as part of its blue duck protection scheme.
 
Hanmer Springs Thermal Reserve
Hanmer Springs Thermal Reserve in the natural place tu unwind. The mineral thermal waters that bubble up from deep beloved the earth are known to Maori as Waitapu – ‘sacred waters’. For more than 100 years the ‘sacred waters’ have attracted visitors seeking to relax, unwind and ease their aches and pains. Relaxation is what HANMER Springs Thermal Reserve is all about, so a visit to the privat and tranquil ‘Alpine Escape’ corner is a must. The sauna and steam suites contain their own shower, changing area and fresh water plunge pool whilst the private thermal suites, which overlook a secluded native garden, contain their own shower, changing area and thermal pool with raised water massage spout. All Alpine Escape suites have room for up to 6 people. In another area of the reserve are the play areas where the young (and young at heart) can enjoy the waterfalls, animal slides and heated waterslides, without disturbing the peace and tranquility of the relaxation pools. A fantastic place in summer, and with a special magic on snowy winter days, Hanmer Springs Thermal Reserve in the small Alpine village of Hanmer Springs Thermal Reserve is the natural place to unwind.
 
The Karawarau River
The Karawarau in New Zealand’s largest commercially rafted river earning it an international reputation for white water thrills.
 
Wai-O-Tapu Thermal Wonderland
The Wai-O-Tapu is the largest area of surface thermal activity of any hydrothermal system in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Covering some 18 sq km, with volcanic dome of Rainbow Mountain at its northern boundary, the area is literally covered with collapsed craters, cold and boiling pools of mud, water and steaming fumaroles. The general public sees only a very small portion. The area is associated with volcanic activity dating back about 160,000 years and is located right on the edge of the largest volcanic caldera within the active Taupo Volcanic Zone. The Wai-O-Tapu stream forms are integral part of the drainage system which ultimately flows into the Waikato River and out into the Tasman Sea. Boiling springs and volcanic gases introduce numerous minerals into the water which account for no fish life in the stream.  As a Scenic Reserve, all native flora, fauna and geological formations are strictly protected. The surrounding manuka scurb vegetation is extremely flammable as are some of the minerals.

2.6. Celebrities
Russell Crowe - a New Zealand-born Australian actor and musician. His acting career began in the early 1990s with roles in Australian TV series such as Police Rescue and films such as Romper Stomper. In the late 1990s, he began appearing in US films such as  L.A. Confidential. He has been nominated for three Oscars, and in 2001, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his starring role in the film Gladiator. Crowe is also co-owner of National Rugby League team the South Sydney Rabbitohs.

Peter Jackson
- a three-time Academy Award-winning New Zealand filmmaker, producer and screenwriter, best known for The Lord of the Rings trilogy adapted from the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien. He is also known for his 2005 remake of King Kong.  He won international attention early in his career with his "splatstick" horror comedies, before coming to mainstream prominence with Heavenly Creatures, for which he shared an Academy Award best screenplay nomination with his partner Fran Walsh.

Cameron Duncan
­- actor, director, and writer. A native of New Zealand, Duncan played the role of 'Bass' on the television series Shortland Street. He also worked on the film, "Strike Zone" as both director and writer. The song, Into The West, was written about him and he was also the recipient of several Fair Go Ad Awards for ads he had done.

Dennis Hulme
- Formula One Driver. 1967 Formula One World Champion, driving a Brabham. In the category started 112 races, won 8, with 33 podiums and 9 fastest laps. He died after a heart attack while at the wheel of a BMW M3 during the Bathurst 1000 in Australia.
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