Rap, Rapping

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: studak
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 07.02.2014
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 509 slov
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Rapping (also known as Mcing , spitting,) is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, one of the elements of hip hop music and culture. The use of the word to describe quick speech or repartee long predates the musical form, meaning originally "to hit".The word had been used in British English since the 16th century, and specifically meaning "to say" since the 18th. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning "to converse", and very soon after that in its present usage as a term denoting the musical style.Rapping can be delivered over a beat or without accompaniment.

Stylistically, rap occupies a gray area among speech, prose, poetry, and song. Rap is derived from the griots (folk poets) of West Africa, and Jamaican-style toasting. It also has precedents in traditional Celtic music. Modern rap battles, for instance, bear a striking resemblance to the Limerick Game, a traditional Gaelic drinking game in which people compete for notoriety by making up insulting limericks about each other, the loser having to buy the next round of drinks. Likewise, puirt a beul, a form of Scottish mouth music was incorporated into Appalachian music and is an early ancestor of modern mouth percussion, or beatboxing . The influence of Scottish and Irish music on hip hop is not direct, since virtually all of the originators of hip hop culture were African American, but were transferred indirectly by way of American roots music.

Roots music was created out of the fusion of African and Celtic music in the American South and is typified by the combination of African rhythms, Gaelic melodies, and occasionally vocal improvisation. It forms the basis of virtually all American musical styles from bluegrass to the blues, jazz, rock, funk, and country. Hip hop grew out of this same tradition; stripping down the melody, emphasizing the rhythm, and incorporating mouth music, battling, and vocal improvisation.Rapping developed both inside and outside of hip hop culture, and began with the street parties thrown in the Bronx neighborhood of New York in the 70s by Jamaican expatriate Kool Herc and others. The parties introduced dancehall and the practice of having a "Master of Ceremonies," or MC, get up on stage with the DJ and shout encouragements to the crowd in a practice known as 'toasting'.

Over time, those shouts of encouragement became more longer and more complex and cross-pollinated with the spoken-word poetry scene to evolve into rap. From the beginning hip hop culture has been syncretic, incorporating sounds and elements from radically divergent sources. The first recorded "Rap" song that had the characteristics of rap music as we know it today (rhyming lyrics to a funk beat) was recorded before the Hip Hop movement began or rap became a regular term. Nevertheless the song is unmistakably a rap song. The song is called "Here Come the Judge" recorded by comedian Pigmeat Markham in 1968. It charted at number 19 in both Billboard and in the UK in that year.
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