The USA – maturitná otázka

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: babuska (24)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 27.01.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
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The USA

Introduction

America is so vast that almost everything said about it is likely to be true and opposite is probably equal too.

G.T.Farrel

Huge country, many cultures, nationalities, Hollywood, scandals (Clinton x Levinska), Florida, skyscrapers, stupid series, Statue of Liberty, White House

Melting pot – everything is mixed and anything new arise from that

Since 60 Pizza or Bowl of salad – everything is mixed, anything new arise from that, but you recognise the parts of that, (people started to look for their roots)

General information

  • the fourth largest country in the world
  • borders on Mexico in the south, the Atlantic Ocean in the east, Canada in the north and The Pacific ocean in the west
  • population 267 mil; area 9.6 mil sq. km
  • the capital is Washington

Climate, relief

  • the oldest mountains are Appalachian Highlands
  • about half of the continental USA is occupied by the Cordilleras in the west
  • the Rocky Mountains are the part of Cordilleras (the highest mountain - Mt. McKinley)
  • the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateau are also to the west of the Rocky Mountains
  • in the middle part there are deserts - Sierra Nevada
  • a lot of lowlands and highlands
  • rivers - the biggest is the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, Hudson, Colorado, Yukon - the biggest in Alaska
  • lakes - on the borders - Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario - together 250000 sq. km
  • world famous Niagara Falls 51m high
  • the climate of the USA is varied . from the Arctic climate in the north to the subtropical climate in the south

History

  • original inhabitants were Indians - came from Asia
  • the first Europeans were Vikings in the 10th century - they didn’t manage to make settlements
  • 1492 - Christopher Columbus discovered America and opened the continent for all world

the names Indians, because he though that he is in India

  • Indians were living mostly from agriculture - potatoes, corn, tobacco
  • it was rich land of gold
  • 17th century came emigrants from all Europe - the people wanted the gold and find a new occasion failed settlements Spanish, French, Swedish, Dutch, English
  • 1584 – First English colony – Virginia
  • 1607 – permanent settlement – James Town
  • 1620 - the first permanent settlers - named Pilgrim Fathers were puritans and were persecuted from England, came to the north of the USA and started to built a new settlement, very hardworking people, after the Pilgrim - the name Plymouth, they came on the ship Mayflower

the first colony - Massachusetts Bay

the first winter was for them terrible half of them died, but with helping of the Indians the second year was

better and they had got a very good harvest - big celebration, since 1621 Americans celebrate Thanksgiving Day it is typical family festival (eat turkey, all family is together, very important day)

  • after the revolution in England came the second wave of emigrants - royalist - very rich people, came to the south - big cotton fields, corn fields - but they didn’t want to work there - the power were slaves
  • in the north there was industry, in the south agriculture
  • 1636 – Harvard University, Boston
  • in 17th and 18th century a great developing of the colonies, but they were under the control of the British government - colonies weren’t able to buy anything from other states, England - high taxis of goods
  • 1773 - Boston tea party - colonists threw all tea cargo in to the sea as a protest
  • it was the beginning of the War of independence 1775 - 1783
  • the leader of the colonists was George Washington
  • at the beginning was the British army more successful, but the winners were Americans, they knew why fight, they wanted to be independent - very strong motivation
  • 1776 - 4th July - The Day of independence - Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration ofindependence (all people are accrual in front of the Got)
  • 13 colonies founded the USA, the first presidentGeorge Washington
  • in the 19th century split into two large parts, one of them being the North represented by Republicans, and the other the South with the slave- oligarchy supported Democrats
  • the winner of the election in 1860 was Abraham Lincoln, took a strong anti-slavery stand - in the north theConfederate States of America, in the south the Union
  • 1861 - 1865 - Civil War - the winner was the Confederate (Emancipation Proclamation - freedom for slaves - Abraham Lincoln)
  • since 1865 there wasn’t any war on the American continent
  • 1865 - 1877 the period of reconstruction - industrialisation - Henry Fords car factories, J. P. Morgans U. S. Steel....)
  • the first strong president after many years was Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1924 – Golden door locked, N.Y. Ellis Island

Industry

  • rich in all minerals - copper, zinc, gas, bauxite, led, oil
  • three parts - North -East -steal works, engineering, machinery, mining, heavy industry, food industry
  • industrial area Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, New York
  • Chicago, Detroit - Ford, car industry, steal works

- South - Middlesouth - typical agriculture areas, main products - corn, cotton, wheat, tobacco,

fruit

  • very good conditions

- West - beautiful countryside, agriculture, national parks (Yellowstone), connected with tourist
industry

  • California - holiday resort, the nicest weather
  • wood industry, L.A. – S.F. – film industry, weapons, ships, planes

Mexican Gulf – earlier – clothes ind., now – chemical ind. – oil, Houston, Dallas, New Orleans

 Political system

  • American president
  • Federal Government - finance, foreign affairs, defence
  • Local government - local problems, social problems, education
  • Congress - Senate

- the House of Representatives

Typical

Yellowstone national park - is the largest and best-known park in the USA. It is visited by thousand of people every day. The nature in this park is very diverse. For instance, there is everything from volcanic activity to a variety of forms of nature beauty. The geysers called Old Faithful are the biggest one in this park. It erupts every 10-minute or so wild buffaloes, which are very dangerous.

Grand Teton national park in this park lakes and high peaks are combined in unique scenery.

Las Vegas - the city of gambling, every year spend the people 17 billions dollars in gambling.

Grand Canyon - in Arizona, the Colorado River, 217 miles long, 5700 feet deep

New Orleans - the main attraction for visitors is the city’s nightlife, connected with jazz

Dallas

Chicago

  • central part of USA, state Illinoi, next to lake Michigan, the third largest city in the USA
  • modern city, city of skyscrapers, the bussiest transportation centre of the country - O’Hare airport
  • old building were pullde down and built the new one Þ modern architecture
  • city of modern art – statues by Piccasso
  • Gallery of modern art – Europian painters from the turn of the century
  • Sears tower – 2nd highest building in the world (443 m, 110 stories, 106 cab elevators)
  • Loop – the central part of Chicago
  • Chicago has been nicknamed the “Windy City” because of the breezes that blow in from the lake

Las Vegas

  • on the west of USA, state Neavada
  • has the reputation of being the entertainment capital of the world
  • annually plays host to some 15 million visitors
  • every hotel has a casino and several playing rooms
  • casinos are open twenty-four hours a day and are designed to keep the guest inside and entertained all the time, most of them offer inexpensive and moderate accomodation and reasonably priced food which is served ot all hours of the day and night
  • bussines stopped only once and that was just for three hours when the news of John F. Kennedy’s death reached the city
  • there are no closing hours in Las Vegas and there are no doors to the casinos

New Orleans

  • on the south of USA, situated where the Mississippi river empties into the Gulf of Mexico
  • tropical climate, was settled by French in 1718, French influence is still seen even today
  • the main attraction for visitors is the city’s night life – the night clubs, exotic dancers, unique shows, shops, restaurants and bars
  • the most popular section is the French Quarter
  • restaurants specializing in „Creole“ cooking - a hot and spicy mix of French and Spanish dishes
  • known to be the birthplace of jazz, the sounds of live jazz coming out the doors into the early morning hours
  • another great attraction is the Mississippi river
  • 200 indian tribes, when the first white man came to America, there were more then 800 000 Indians there. Indians spoke different languages, one tribe don’t understand other. So they use the language of signs which they invented. Many of them were removed from their land in 1887, their land was cut down from 139 mil to 47 mil square miles, it nearly destroyed their way of life
  • The Indians have built organisations – National Congress of American Indians … to representate them
  • Some Ind. Still live their typical way of life, other started to live a new life in modern cities
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