The Countries Whose Language I Am Learning

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča lenka
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 24.05.2009
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 344 slov
Počet zobrazení: 13 362
Tlačení: 615
Uložení: 656
Praktické!

GREAT BRITAIN:

General information:
Official name: The UK of GB and Northern Ireland  (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
Location: north-west coast of Europe across the English Channel (La Manche), it consists of 2 islands: Great Britain and Ireland and many smaller ones (the Isle of Wight, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, Man island)
Surface: mostly rolling land, mountain regions: Cornish Heights, the Cambrians, the Pennines, the Highlands of Scotland
The highest peak: Ben Nevis (Highlands of Scotland)
Waters: longest rivers (the Severn, the Thames – London), famous lakes (Loch Ness, Loch Lomond)
Flag & anthem: British national flag = Union Jack (crosses of England – St. George’s cross, Scotland – St. Andrew, Ireland – St. Patrick), national anthem = God save the Queen
Population: 60 mill. people, ethnic groups: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Ulster…
Languages: official - English, regional – Welsh, Scottish, Irish Gaelic. Nowadays UK is a multi-racial nation. Until 1962 any Commonwealth citizen was allowed into Britain so many came from the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Hong Kong. During political changes in Europe came here many immigrants – Jews, Russians, Germans, Poles…
Capital: London

government: UK is a constitutional monarchy, the official head of State is the monarch (Queen Elisabeth II) but her powers are limited by the constitution. Parliament is the supreme legislative body and the highest authority in the UK. It has two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords. The executive power is exercised by the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister (Gordon Brown). The UK's three major political parties are the Labour Party and the Conservative Party. The monarch of the UK also serves as head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting the UK in a personal union with those other states. The UK has fourteen overseas territories around the world, the last remaining territories of the

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH: The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 49 members - UK and most of former (bývalých) British colonies, dependencies of these colonies. The Head of the Commonwealth is Queen Elizabeth II. The head of the Commonwealth and its leaders meet for a conference every 2 years. Example of members: Australia, New Zealand, Cyprus, Malta, Kenya, India, Pakistan...
 
INTERESTING TOWNS, PLACES:
London: Houses of Parliament, Big Ben, Whitehall, Downing Street 10, Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, The Tower of London, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, The National Gallery, The British Museum, Buckingham Palace, Piccadilly Circus, Oxford Street, St. James’s Park, Green Park, Regent’s Park, Hyde Park, Madame Tussaud´s, Greenwich, Kew Gardens, Windsor Castle, Shakespeare’s Globe…
Stratford-upon-Avon: birthplace of William Shakespeare, Holy Trinity Church, Grammar School, Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Harvard House…
Oxford: 34 colleges, the Bodleian Library, the Radcliffe Camera, the Christ Church…
Cambridge: also university town
Canterbury: seat of the Archbishop, Canterbury Cathedral
York (York Minister – cathedral), Warwick (Warwick castle), Winchester (Winchester cathedral, Winchester College), Brighton (Royal Pavilion), Devon region (National Parks of Dartmoor and Exmoor), Stonehenge (giant stone circles more than 3000 years old), Salisbury (Cathedral of Saint Mary), Bath (roman spa), Liverpool (Beatles), Hadrian’s Wall, Edinburgh (the capital of Scotland, Castle), Loch Ness, Loch Lomond
 
The USA:
 
GENERAL INFORMATION:
Official name: the United States of America (50 states: Alaska in the North – bought in past from Russia, Hawaii in the Mid-Pacific and 48 states on continent like California, Nevada, Texas, Florida, Alabama, Colorado, Minnesota, Oregon..)
Location: between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on the North American continent, borders with Canada and Mexico
Surface: varied landscapes – highland region of Appalachia in the east, the Rocky Mountains in the west, Great Plains in the centre; arctic cold Alaska region, Hawaii and Florida with warm subtropical climate or beautiful and preserved nature in Yellowstone, Grand Canyon or Mount Mc Kinley (the highest peak of North America).
Waters: the largest rivers (the Mississippi, the Missouri), the border with Canada – the Great Lakes Region (lakes Huron, Superior, Michigan, Ontario – Niagara Falls)
Population: more than 243 mill. people mostly of European origin; over than 100 major ethnic groups
Languages: national language – English; no official language at the federal level, spoken also Spanish, Hawaiian, French… Differences between American and British English in vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling (color-colour, fall-autumn)… various ethnic minorities speak their original languages, for example Chinese, Pittsburgh – Slovak community.
Capital: Washington DC – district Columbia
GOVERNMENT: USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, the largest state is Alaska, the smallest one is Rhode Island. Each state has its own government, laws, education and taxes. The US political system is based on 2 strongest opposed parties – the Republicans (more conservative) and the Democrats (the party of reform). The power of the Government is divided into 3 branches – the executive, legislative and judicial branch. First president was George Washington, other ones: Abraham Lincoln, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Jefferson, J.F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton… nowadays G.W. Bush. Presidential election is held every four years.
 
INTERESTING TOWNS, PLACES:
NEW YORK: the largest city of USA, called “the Big apple”, 5 boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, Richmond. NYC with suburbs has 18 million inhabitants, typical skyline – dominated by a number of skyscrapers, the highest used to be the World Trade Centre (till September 11th), another famous attractions: Empire state building, the Brooklyn bridge – the longest in the world, the Statue of Liberty – symbol of freedom and democracy and the Grand central station, the Fifth Avenue – famous for its luxurious shops, jewelleries, office buildings, Central Park – the largest and most important park in NYC, Rockefeller Center – complex of commercial buildings, Wall Street, Madison Square garden, Chinatown, Chrysler building
WASHINGTON D.C., LOS ANGELES, SAN FRANCISCO, LAS VEGAS, PITTSBURGH, MIAMI, SEATTLE, CHICAGO
 
CANADA:

GENERAL INFORMATION:
Location: a country in North America, extending from the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic Ocean, the world's second largest country, shares land borders with the United States, country is divided onto 10 provinces, 3 territories.
National symbols...: maple leaf, hockey
Official languages: English, French
Capital: Ottawa
 
GOVERNMENT: Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of the government. The country is a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions.
Immigration policy of Canada: many scientists, IT technologists, doctors, ...

AUSTRALIA:
 
GENERAL INFORMATION:
Official name: The Commonwealth of Australia
Location: Australia – the Earth’s smallest continent
Surface: 3 major land regions: 1) The Western Plateau (mostly desert), 2) The Central Lowlands (the eastern half of
Australia, hit, dry), 3) The Eastern Highlands (hills)…
History, government: in 1770 British sailor James Cook landed on the East coast and 6 British colonies were established, in 1901 these colonies joined as a federation and became independent from Britain, Australia is a member of British Commonwealth of Nations. Australia is federation of 6 states – New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania.
Capital: Canberra (aboriginal word means “meeting place”)
 
NATURE: eucalyptus threes everywhere in Australia, extraordinary animals – kangaroo (symbol of Australia), koalas, echidnas (ježura austrálska – dikobraz), Tasmanian devil, wombats (vombat), kookaburras (rybárikovec obrovský), penguins (tučniak), 800 kinds of birds – for example Emu
 
INTERESTING PLACES: famous are hills Uluru – Ayers Rock (600 mill. years old, largest of this kind in the world, it changes colour from yellow to gold, red, purple), Mount Kosciusko – the Snowy Mountain, the Great Barrier Reef (the world's largest coral reef system, located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of northeast Australia)...
CANBERRA: capital, the newest city, Captain Cook Memorial Water Jet, Old and New Parliament Houses, the National Library of Australia, Questacon (the national science and technology centre)…
SYDNEY: the oldest and biggest city in Australia, Sydney Opera House (specific architecture), the Sydney Harbour Bridge (one of the longest bridges in the world)…
MELBOURNE, BRISBANE, ADELAIDE, PERTH
 
OTHER ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES: NEW ZEALAND, IRELAND, The republic of SOUTH AFRICA…
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